Class 10 Science SEE Guide | Unit - 2 Classification of Living Beings 2080

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Class 10 Science SEE Guide 

Unit - 2

Classification of Living Beings Guide


1. Choose the correct options for the questions below.

a. What are the main features of organisms under kingdom plantae?

i. Eukaryotic cell, cell with cell wall, heterotrophs

ii. Eukaryotic cell, cell without cell wall, heterotrophs

iii. Eukaryotic cell, cell with cell wall, autotrophs

iv. Eukaryotic cell, cell with cell wall, saprotrophs

Answer 👉 iii. Eukaryotic cell, cell with cell wall, autotrophs

b. Why is Cycas kept in gymnosperm?

i. Bears flowers, produces seed.

ii. Bears flowers, leaves are needle-like.

iii. Bears cones instead of flowers, seeds are naked without fruit.

iv. Bears cones instead of flowers, seedsare enclosed in fruit.

Answer 👉 iii. Bears cones instead of flowers, seeds are naked without fruit.

c. Two animals are shown here in figure. They belong to- the same kingdom. Look at the figure and write the main reason for grouping them under the same kingdom.

i, Multicellular and have various organ systems§

ii. Multicellular and heterotrophic

iii. Multicellular and parasitic

iv. Multicellular and oviparous

Answer 👉 ii. Multicellular and heterotrophic

d. Based on evolution, which of the following groups of organisms are closely related?

i Porifera, Annelida, Chordata

ii. Porifera, Arthropoda, Chordata

iii. Coelenterata, Arthropoda, Chordata

iv. Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Annelida

Answer 👉  i. Porifera, Annelida, Chordata

e. What is the main reason for classifying whales in the class mammalia?

i, Respires through lungs

ii. Vertebral column is found in the body

iii. Viviparous

iv. Gives birth and suckle milk to young ones

Answer 👉  iv. Gives birth and suckle milk to young ones

f. Why are club mosses more advanced than the mosses?

i, Clubmoss grows on the land.

ii. Clubmoss is sporophyte.

iii. Xylem and phloem tissue are found in clubmoss.

iv. Sporophyte is dominant in alternation of generation.

Answer 👉  iv. Sporophyte is dominant in alternation of generation.

g To which kingdom do organisms having cell walls belong?

i, monera, fungi, animalia

ii. fungi, plantae, protista

iii. fungi, plantae, animalia

iv. fungi, plantae, monera

Answer 👉  ii. fungi, plantae, protista

h. To which class do egg-laying animals with a four- chambered heart and body covered with feather belong?

i, Mammalia

ii. Reptilia

iii. Aves

iv. Amphibia

Answer 👉 iii. Aves

i. Which of the following group of plants belong to angiosperm?

i. pinus, fern, pea

ii. juniper, maize, gram

iii. moss, maize,bean

iv. paddy, banana, mango

Answer 👉 ii. juniper, maize, gram

j. Which division do the plants having vascular tissue belong to?

i. Sporophyta

ii. Gametophyta

iii. Tracheophyta

iv. Spermatophyta

Answer 👉  iii. Tracheophyta

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2. Differentiate:

a. Plant kingdom and animal kingdom

Answer 👉 

  • Plant kingdom consists of organisms that are eukaryotic, multicellular, have cell walls, and are primarily autotrophic (produce their own food through photosynthesis).

  • Animal kingdom consists of organisms that are eukaryotic, multicellular, lack cell walls, and are heterotrophic (depend on other organisms for food).

b. Fish and star fish

Answer 👉 

  • Fish are vertebrates that live in water, have gills for respiration, and typically have fins and scales. They belong to the phylum Chordata.
  • Starfish, also known as sea stars, are echinoderms and belong to the phylum Echinodermata. They have a radial body symmetry, a central disc with arms, and a water vascular system for locomotion.

c. Jelly fish and cuttle fish

Answer 👉 

  • Jellyfish are cnidarians, belonging to the class Scyphozoa. They have gelatinous bodies, tentacles with stinging cells, and a simple nervous system.
  • Cuttlefish are marine mollusks and belong to the class Cephalopoda. They have soft bodies, a unique internal shell called a cuttlebone, and are known for their ability to change color and texture for camouflage.

d. Moss and club moss

Answer 👉 

  • Moss is a non-vascular plant that belongs to the division Bryophyta. It has a simple structure, lacks true roots, stems, and leaves, and reproduces through spores.
  • Club moss, also known as lycophytes, is a group of vascular plants that belongs to the division Lycophyta. They have true roots, stems, and leaves, and reproduce through spores. They are more advanced than mosses in terms of plant evolution.

e. Pinus and peepal

Answer 👉 

  • Pinus, commonly known as pine trees, is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees. They belong to the division Pinophyta and have needle-like leaves and produce cones as reproductive structures.
  • Peepal, also known as the sacred fig tree, is a species of tree belonging to the genus Ficus. It is a flowering plant and belongs to the division Magnoliophyta (angiosperms). It has broad, heart-shaped leaves and produces fruits.

f. Fish and whale

Answer 👉 

  • Fish are aquatic vertebrates that breathe through gills, have fins for locomotion, and are cold-blooded. They come from various species and are diverse in size and shape.
  • Whales are marine mammals that are warm-blooded, have lungs for breathing, and give live birth. They are part of the cetacean order and are much larger than most fish species.

g. Dove and Bat

Answer 👉 

  • Dove is a bird belonging to the order Columbiformes. It has feathers, beak, wings, and is warm-blooded. Doves are known for their cooing sound and are capable of flight.
  • Bat is a mammal belonging to the order Chiroptera. It has wings formed from stretched skin between elongated fingers, and is the only mammal capable of sustained flight. Bats are nocturnal and use echolocation for navigation.

3. Give reason:

a. Living beings need to be classified.

    Answer 👉 Living beings need to be classified because classification helps in organizing and categorizing the vast diversity of organisms based on their characteristics, relationships, and evolutionary history. It allows us to study and understand the similarities, differences, and interrelationships between different species. Classification also aids in identifying and naming organisms, as well as predicting their behavior, ecological roles, and evolutionary patterns.

    b. Fucus and Marchantia look alike, but Fucus is classified as algae while Marchantia is classified as bryophyta.

      Answer 👉 

      Fucus and Marchantia may look similar in some aspects, but their classification is based on their overall characteristics, reproductive structures, and evolutionary relationships. Fucus belongs to the kingdom Protista and is classified as algae because it possesses features characteristic of algae, such as chlorophyll-containing cells and the ability to photosynthesize. On the other hand, Marchantia belongs to the kingdom Plantae and is classified as bryophyta (specifically a liverwort) due to its distinct reproductive structures, lack of true vascular tissues, and other bryophyte-like characteristics.

      c. Gymnosperms do not bear fruit.

        Answer 👉 Gymnosperms are a group of plants that produce seeds but do not develop fruits. Unlike angiosperms (flowering plants), which enclose their seeds within fruits, gymnosperms have exposed or naked seeds. Gymnosperm seeds are typically borne on the surface of specialized structures like cones or modified leaves. While gymnosperms play a crucial role in seed plant evolution, their reproductive structures differ from those of angiosperms, which have evolved fruits to protect and disperse their seeds.

        d. Although a crocodile has a four-chambered heart, it belongs to the reptilian class.

          Answer 👉 The classification of organisms is not solely based on a single characteristic, such as the presence of a four-chambered heart. Crocodiles possess several other features and traits that align them with the reptilian class, such as having scales, laying eggs, being ectothermic (relying on external sources for body heat regulation), and exhibiting other reptilian anatomical and physiological characteristics. The presence of a four-chambered heart is an adaptation shared by both crocodiles and some birds, but it does not alone determine their classification.

          e. Although batsand whales have dissimilar characteristics, they belong to the same class.

            Answer 👉 Bats and whales belong to the same class, Mammalia, despite their dissimilar characteristics, because they share several key features that define mammals. Both bats and whales are warm-blooded, have mammary glands that produce milk, possess hair or fur (even though whales have hair only during their early development), and give live birth to their young. The class Mammalia is defined by these shared characteristics, allowing for the grouping of diverse organisms that have evolved different adaptations for their respective environments.

            f. Riccia is an amphibian plant.

              Answer 👉 Riccia is not an amphibian plant. Amphibians refer to a specific group of vertebrates that include frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. They are characterized by their ability to live both in water and on land, undergoing a metamorphosis from aquatic larvae to terrestrial adults. Riccia, on the other hand, is a genus of non-vascular plants belonging to the division Marchantiophyta (liverworts). It is a type of bryophyte, which includes mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. Riccia is a land-dwelling plant that reproduces through spores and lacks true roots, stems, and leaves.

              g. Fern is not a flowering plant; Cycas bears flower like cone but no fruit; banana bears flower and fruit. However, all these plants are kept in the same division.

                Answer 👉 Ferns, Cycas, and bananas are all classified within the same division, Pteridophyta. The division Pteridophyta includes plants that reproduce through spores and do not produce seeds. Ferns are non-flowering plants that reproduce through spores and have vascular tissues, while Cycas produces cones that resemble flowers but are not true flowers, and bananas produce true flowers and develop fruits. Despite differences in their reproductive structures and the presence or absence of fruits, they are grouped together based on their common characteristics, including the absence of seeds and their shared evolutionary history as non-seed plants.

                4. Answer the following questions.

                a. Into how many divisions are the organisms in plant kingdom divided?

                Answer 👉 The organisms in the plant kingdom are divided into four main divisions: Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts), Pteridophyta (ferns and horsetails), Gymnospermae (gymnosperms), and Angiospermae (angiosperms or flowering plants).

                b. Write the main features of kingdom plantae.

                Answer 👉 The main features of kingdom Plantae include:

                • Eukaryotic cells: Plants are made up of cells that have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
                • Autotrophic nutrition: Plants are capable of photosynthesis, producing their own food using sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide.
                • Cellulose cell walls: Plant cells have rigid cell walls composed of cellulose, providing structural support and protection.
                • Chloroplasts: Plant cells contain chloroplasts, which house the pigments necessary for photosynthesis.
                • Multicellularity: Plants are typically multicellular organisms, composed of different types of specialized cells.

                c. Write the similarities of plants which belong to gymnosperm and angiosperm.

                Answer 👉 Some similarities between plants belonging to gymnosperms and angiosperms include:

                • Vascular tissue: Both gymnosperms and angiosperms have well-developed vascular tissues, including xylem and phloem, which transport water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the plant.
                • Sporophyte dominance: Both groups exhibit a dominant sporophyte phase in their life cycles, where the sporophyte is the predominant and more conspicuous stage.
                • Presence of seeds: Both gymnosperms and angiosperms produce seeds for reproduction, providing protection and nourishment to the developing embryo.
                • Alternation of generations: Both groups undergo an alternation of generations, involving a multicellular haploid (gametophyte) phase and a multicellular diploid (sporophyte) phase in their life cycles.

                d. If you are given only the leaves of some plants in tracheophyta and asked to distinguish their subdivisions | using the taxonomic knowledge you have acquired in class. Is it possible to do so? Give your arguments.

                Answer 👉 Distinguishing the subdivisions of plants in Tracheophyta based solely on leaves may be challenging and often not possible. While leaves carry important information about the plant's shape, size, venation, and other characteristics, they are not sufficient to accurately determine the subdivisions within Tracheophyta. Taxonomic classification considers multiple aspects of plants, including reproductive structures, vascular systems, life cycle, and overall morphology. These additional characteristics are necessary for proper identification and classification. Therefore, relying solely on leaves may not provide enough information to distinguish subdivisions within Tracheophyta accurately.

                e. What are the main characteristics of pteridophyta?

                Answer 👉 The main characteristics of Pteridophyta (ferns and horsetails) include:

                • Vascular tissue: Pteridophytes have well-developed vascular tissue, consisting of xylem and phloem, allowing efficient transport of water, minerals, and sugars throughout the plant.
                • Sporophyte dominance: Pteridophytes have a dominant sporophyte phase in their life cycle, where the sporophyte is the conspicuous and long-lived phase, compared to the gametophyte phase.
                • Reproduction through spores: Pteridophytes reproduce via spores, which are produced in sporangia present on the undersides of specialized leaves called sporophylls.
                • Alternation of generations: Pteridophytes exhibit alternation of generations, with a multicellular haploid gametophyte phase and a multicellular diploid sporophyte phase.

                f. Roshni observed only the flowers of new plant in her garden and concluded that the plant belongs to monocotyledon. Is observation of only the flowers a right way to identify monocotyledon? Give reasons.

                Answer 👉 Observing only the flowers of a plant is not a reliable way to identify whether it belongs to Monocotyledon or Dicotyledon. While flowers can provide some clues about a plant's classification, they do not provide definitive evidence for distinguishing between these two groups. Monocotyledons and dicotyledons are distinguished based on several features, including the number of cotyledons (seed leaves), leaf venation, floral parts (petals, sepals, stamens, etc.), root systems, and vascular bundles in the stem. These characteristics collectively determine the plant's classification as a monocot or dicot. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of various plant structures and characteristics is necessary to accurately identify the plant's classification and cannot be solely determined by observing the flowers.

                i, Digestive system is not developed in the animals of phylum porifera. How do they digest food? Write.

                Answer 👉 In animals of the phylum Porifera (sponges), digestion occurs at a cellular level. Porifera have specialized cells called choanocytes or collar cells that line their internal canals. These choanocytes create water currents by beating their flagella, bringing in water along with suspended food particles. The choanocytes then capture the food particles through their collar-like structures and ingest them through phagocytosis. Once inside the choanocytes, food particles are broken down by enzymes and digested intracellularly. The digested nutrients are then transported and shared among other cells in the sponge through a process called intracellular digestion.

                j. Rakesh saw an animal while he was playing in the ground. How can he identify the phylum of that animal by using taxonomic knowledge of kingdom Animalia? Explain.

                Answer 👉 To identify the phylum of an animal using taxonomic knowledge, Rakesh can consider several characteristics of the animal. Some key features that can help in determining the phylum include:

                • Body symmetry: Rakesh can observe whether the animal exhibits radial symmetry (phylum Cnidaria, such as jellyfish) or bilateral symmetry (phylum Chordata, such as mammals).
                • Presence of a backbone: Rakesh can check if the animal has a vertebral column (backbone). If present, it would belong to the phylum Chordata (vertebrates). If absent, it could be a member of other phyla, such as Arthropoda (insects, crustaceans) or Mollusca (snails, clams).
                • Presence of exoskeleton or endoskeleton: Rakesh can examine if the animal has an external skeleton (exoskeleton) made of chitin (phylum Arthropoda, such as insects) or a internal skeleton (endoskeleton) made of bones or cartilage (phylum Chordata).
                • Body segmentation: Rakesh can observe if the animal has a segmented body (phylum Annelida, such as earthworms) or lacks body segmentation (phylum Cnidaria, such as jellyfish).

                By carefully observing these and other distinguishing features, Rakesh can make an informed identification of the animal's phylum.

                k. Sharkand whale both live in water. Based on their features, which is more developed animal? Explain with reasons.

                Answer 👉 

                In terms of evolutionary development and complexity, whales (phylum Chordata, class Mammalia) are considered more developed animals compared to sharks (phylum Chordata, class Chondrichthyes). Here are some reasons:

                • Body structure: Whales have a more streamlined and efficient body structure for swimming. They have evolved to have a streamlined fusiform body shape, horizontal tail flukes, and pectoral flippers adapted for efficient swimming and diving. Sharks, on the other hand, have a more primitive body structure with a fusiform shape but lack the specialized adaptations seen in whales.
                • Reproductive system: Whales are viviparous, meaning they give birth to live young ones. They have a more complex reproductive system involving internal fertilization and nurturing of the embryo within the mother's body. Sharks, on the other hand, are mostly oviparous (lay eggs) or ovoviviparous (retain the eggs inside the body until they hatch), which is a less developed form of reproduction compared to viviparity seen in whales.
                • Behavioral complexity: Whales exhibit complex social behaviors and communication systems, including elaborate vocalizations and group dynamics. They display cooperative hunting, migration patterns, and even cultural transmission of behaviors. Sharks, although formidable predators, do not exhibit the same level of social complexity and behaviors seen in whales.

                These are some of the reasons why whales are considered more developed animals compared to sharks. However, it's important to note that both sharks and whales have their own unique adaptations and evolutionary success in their respective environments.

                m. Explain the relation between classification of living beings and evolution.

                Answer 👉 The classification of living beings is closely related to evolution. Through classification, organisms are grouped based on their similarities and differences, providing insights into their evolutionary relationships. Classification reflects the evolutionary history and helps us understand the patterns of evolutionary change, including ancestral traits, speciation events, and the emergence of new traits through adaptation and natural selection.

                n. Draw a chart to show classification of kingdom plantae according to five kingdom system.

                Answer 👉 Kingdom Plantae classification in the five-kingdom system:

                • Kingdom: Plantae
                • Division: Bryophyta
                • Division: Pteridophyta
                • Division: Coniferophyta
                • Division: Angiosperms
                • Class: Monocotyledonae
                • Class: Dicotyledonae

                o. Draw achart to show classification of kingdom animalia according to five kingdom system.

                Answer 👉 Kingdom Animalia classification in the five-kingdom system:

                • Kingdom: Animalia
                • Phylum: Porifera
                • Phylum: Cnidaria
                • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
                • Phylum: Nematoda
                • Phylum: Annelida
                • Phylum: Mollusca
                • Phylum: Arthropoda
                • Phylum: Echinodermata
                • Phylum: Chordata
                • Subphylum: Vertebrata
                • Class: Agnatha
                • Class: Chondrichthyes
                • Class: Osteichthyes
                • Class: Amphibia
                • Class: Reptilia
                • Class: Aves
                • Class: Mammalia


                Unit 2. सजीवहरूको वर्गीकरण 

                1. तलका प्रश्नको सही विकल्प छनोट गर्नुहोस् :

                (क) वनस्पति जगत्मा पर्ने जीवहरूका मुख्य विशेषता के के हुन् ?

                (अ) युक्यारियोटिक कोष, कोषमा कोष भिता भएको, परपोषक

                (आ) युक्यारियोटिक कोष, कोषमा कोष भिता नभएको, परपोषक

                (इ) युक्यारियोटिक कोष, कोषमा कोष भिता भएको, स्वपोषक

                (ई) युक्यारियोटिक कोष, कोषमा कोष भित्ता भएको, स्याप्रोट्रोफिक

                 Answer 👉 (इ) युक्यारियोटिक कोष, कोषमा कोष भिता भएको, स्वपोषक

                (ख) साइकसलाई किन जिम्नोस्पर्ममा राखिएको हो ?

                (अ) यसमा फूल फुल्छ, बिउ उत्पादन गर्छ ।

                (आ) यसमा फूल फुल्छ, यसका पात तिखा हुन्छन्

                (इ) यसमा फूलको सट्टा कोन हुन्छ, फलबिनाको नाङ्गो बिउ हुन्छ ।

                (ई) यसमा फूलको सट्टा कोन हुन्छ, फलभित्र बिउ हुन्छ।

                 Answer 👉 (आ) यसमा फूल फुल्छ, यसका पात तिखा हुन्छन्

                (ग) यहाँ दुईओटा जीवको चित्र दिइएको छ । यी दुवै जीव एउटै जगत्मा पर्छन् । यी चित्रहरू अवलोकन गर्नुहोस् । यी दुवैलाईएउटै जगत्मा राख्नुको मुख्य कारण के हो ?

                (अ) बहुकोषीय भई विभिन्न प्रणालीयुक्त हुन्छन् ।

                (आ) बहुकोषीय भई परपोषक हुन्छन् ।

                (इ) बहुकोषीय भई परजीवी हुन्छन् ।

                (ई) बहुकोषीय भई ओभिप्यारस हुन्छन् ।

                 Answer 👉 (इ) बहुकोषीय भई परजीवी हुन्छन् ।

                (घ) क्रमविकासका आधारमा दिइएका मध्ये सबैभन्दा धेरै नजिकको सम्बन्ध भएका जीवहरुको समूह कुन हो ?

                (अ) पोरिफेरा, एनिलिडा, कोर्डेटा

                (आ) पोरिफेरा, आर्थ्रोपोडा, कोर्डेटा

                (इ) सिलेन्टरेटा, आर्थ्रोपोडा, कोर्डेटा

                (ई) प्लेटिहेल्मेन्यिस निमाथेल्मेन्थिस, एनेलिडा 

                 Answer 👉 (अ) पोरिफेरा, एनिलिडा, कोर्डेटा

                (ङ) ह्वेललाई स्तनधारी समूहअन्तर्गत राखिनुको मुख्य कारण कुन हो ?

                (अ) फोक्सोले सास फेर्छ ।

                (आ) शरीरमा मेरुदण्ड हुन्छ ।

                (इ) भिभिप्यारस हुन्छ ।

                (ई) बच्चा जन्माएर दुध चुसाउँछ ।

                 Answer 👉 (ई) बच्चा जन्माएर दुध चुसाउँछ ।

                (च) ह्वेल मसभन्दा क्लबमस विकसित हुनुको प्रमुख कारण कुन हो ?

                (अ) क्लबमस जमिनमा हुर्कन्छ ।

                (आ) क्लबमस स्पोरोफाइट हो ।

                (इ) क्लबमसमा जाइलम र फ्लोयम तन्तु हुन्छ ।

                (ई) अल्टरनेसन अफ जेनेरेसन्समा स्पोरोफाइट प्रबल हुन्छ ।

                 Answer 👉 (इ) क्लबमसमा जाइलम र फ्लोयम तन्तु हुन्छ ।

                (छ) कोषमा कोषभिता हुने जीवहरूका जगत् कुन कुन हुन् ?

                 (अ) मोनेरा, फन्जाइ, एनिमलिया

                (आ) फन्जाइ, प्लान्टी, प्रोटिस्टा

                (इ) फन्जाइ, प्लान्टी, एनिमलिया

                (ई) फन्जाइ, प्लान्टी, मोनेरा

                 Answer 👉  (अ) मोनेरा, फन्जाइ, एनिमलिया

                (ज) मुटुमा चारओटा कोठा हुने, शरीर भुत्ला र पखेटाले छोपेको, ओभिप्यारस जनावर कुन समूहमा पर्छ ?

                (अ) स्तनपायी

                (आ) सरिसृप

                (इ) पंक्षी

                (ई) उभयचर

                 Answer 👉 (इ) पंक्षी

                (झ) तलका मध्ये कुन समूह एन्जियोस्पर्मअन्तर्गत पर्छन् ?

                (अ) सल्लो, उनिउँ, केराउ

                (आ) धुपी, मकै, चना

                (इ) मस, मकै, सिमी

                (ई) धान, केरा, ऑप

                 Answer 👉 (आ) धुपी, मकै, चना

                (ञ) शरीरमा भास्कुलर तन्तु हुने बिरुवाको डिभिजनलाई के भनिन्छ ?

                (अ) स्पोरोफाइटा

                (आ) ग्यामेटोफाइटा

                (इ) ट्राकियोफाइटा

                (ई) स्पर्माटोफाइटा

                 Answer 👉 (अ) स्पोरोफाइटा


                2. फरक लेख्नुहोस् :


                (क) जगत् र जन्तु जगत् 

                वनस्पति जगत्

                १) यिनीहरुको कोषमा हुने कोष भिता सेलुलोज (cellulose) लेबनेको हुन्छ ।

                (२) यिनीहरु स्वपोषित हुन्छन ।

                3) यसअन्तर्गत एककोषीयदेखि बहुकोषीय हरितक (chlorophyll) भएका बिरुवाहरू पर्छन् ।


                जन्तु जगत्

                (१) यी सबै जीवको शरीर कोषभिता नभएका विकसित न्युक्लियसयुक्त कोषहरु (eukaryotic cells) मिलेर बनेको हुन्छ ।

                (२) यी जीवहरू परपोषक हुन्छन् ।

                (३) यसअन्तर्गत एककोषीयदेखि बहुकोषीय सजिवहरु



                (ख) माछा र तारामाछा


                (१) यो ढाड भएको जनावर हो।

                (२) यो कोर्डेटा फाइलमको पिसेज श्रेणीमा पर्छ । 

                (३) यसको शरीर वायुयान आकारको हुन्छ ।



                (१) यो ढाड नभएको जनावर हो

                (२) यो इकाइनोडर्मेटा फाइलममा पर्छ ।

                (३) यसको शरीर तारा आकारको हुन्छ ।



                (ग) जेली फिस र कटल फिस


                जेली फिस

                (१) यो सिलेन्टरेटा फाइलममा पर्दछ । 

                (२) शरीरभित्र खोक्रो नली हुन्छ ।

                (३) यिनीहरुमा मैथुनिक र अमैथुनिक दुवैतरिकाबाट प्रजनन हुन्छन् ।



                (१) यो इकाइनोडर्मटा फाइलमा पर्दछ । 

                (२) शरीर कडा आवरणले ढाकेको हुन्छ । 

                (३) यिनीहरू मैथुनिक तरिकाबाट प्रजनन गर्छन् ।


                (घ) मस र क्लबमस



                (१) यसको काण्ड र पात साधारण हुन्छ । 

                (२) यो ओसिलो ठाउमा पाइन्छ



                (१) यसको काण्ड र पात प्रष्टसंग छुट्टिएको हुन्छ । 

                (२) यो छाया परेको भागमा पाइन्छ ।

                (ङ) सल्लो र पिपल

                (च) माछा र ह्वेल



                (१) यसले शरीर कत्लाले ढाकेको हुन्छ ।

                (२) यसले गिल्सको मद्दतले श्वास फर्छन् ।

                (३) यसको मुटुमा ३ ओटा कोठा हुन्छन् ।



                (१) यसले शरीर रौ ढाकेको हुन्छ ।

                (२) यसले फोक्सोको मद्दतले श्वास फर्छन् । 

                (३) यसको मुटुमा ४ ओटा कोठा हुन्छन् ।


                (छ) ढुकुर र चमेरो


                (१) यसले डिम्मा पारेर बच्चा कोरल्छ ।

                (२) यसको मुखमा चुच्चो हुन्छ ।

                (३) यिनीहरु एभस क्लासमा पर्दछ ।


                (१) यसले जिउँदो बच्चा जन्माउँछ ।

                (२) यसको मुखमा दाँतहरू हुन्छन् ।

                (३) यिनीहरु मामेलिया क्लासमा पर्दछ ।



                3. कारण दिनुहोस् :

                (क) सजीवहरूको वर्गीकरण गर्न आवश्यक छ ।

                Answer 👉 : किनकी यसपृथ्वी अनेकौं सजीवहरु छन् । ती सजीवहरुको बारेमा अध्ययन गर्नेको लागि सजिवहरुको वर्गीकरण आवश्यक छ ।


                (ख) फ्युकस र मार्केन्सिया हेर्दा उस्तै देखिन्छन् तर फ्युकसलाई अल्गी र मार्केन्सियालाई ब्रायोफाइटा अन्तर्गत राखिन्छ ।

                Answer 👉 : answer update soon


                (ग) जिम्नोस्पर्ममा फल लाग्दैन ।

                Answer 👉 : किनकि फूलको सत्तामा शडकु वा कोन हुन्छ । र शडकु वा कोनमा ओभरी हुँदैन जसले गर्दा जिम्नोस्पर्ममा फल लाग्दैन् । 


                (घ) गोहीमा चारओटा कोठा भएको मुटु हुन्छ तर यो रेप्टिलिया अन्तर्गत पर्छ ।

                Answer 👉 : किनकी गोही जमिनमा घसेर हिड्छन । यी जनावरहरु रेप्टिलिया क्लास अन्तर्गत पर्दछन । त्यसैले गोजीमा चारओटा कोठा भएको मुटु हुन्छ तर यो रेप्टिलिया अन्तर्गत पर्छ।


                (ङ) चमेरो र हवेलका धेरै विशेषता असमान छन् तर पनि यिनीहरु एउटै वर्गमा पर्छन् ।

                Answer 👉 : किनकी चमेरो र हवेल को शरीर रौंले ढाकेको हुन्छ र यिनीहरुले बच्चा जन्माएर दुध चुसाउँछन् । त्यसैले चमेरो र ह्वेलका धेरै विशेषता असमान छन् तर पनि यिनीहरु एउटै वर्गमा पर्छन् ।


                (च) रिसियालाई एम्फिबियन बिरुवा भनिन्छ ।

                Answer 👉 : किनकी रिसियाको शरीर थालस (thallus) हुन्छ र ब्रायोफाइटा अन्तर्गत पर्ने यी बिरुवालाई मैथुनिक प्रजननको समयमा गर्भाधान हुन पानी नभइ हुँदैन । त्यसैले रिसियालाई एम्फिबियन बिरुवा भनिन्छ |


                (छ) उनिउँमा फूल फुल्दैन, साइकसमा फूल फुल्छ तर फल फल्दैन, केरामा फूल पनि फुल्छ र फल पनि फल्छ; तर पनि यी सबै बिरुवाहरू एउटै डिभिजनमा पर्छन् ।

                Answer 👉 : किनकी उनिउमा जरा, काण्ड र पात प्रस्टसँग छुट्टिएको हुन्छ । त्यसैले उनिउँमा फूल फुल्दैन । साईकसमा शडकु वा कोनमा ओभरी हुँदैन । त्यसैले साइकसमा फूल फुल्छ तर फल फल्दैन। र केराको फूलमा ओभरी र ओभ्यूल हुन्छन् । त्यसैले केरामा फूल र फल दुवै फल्छ ।



                4. तलका प्रश्नको Answer लेख्नुहोस् :

                (क) वनस्पति जगत्मा पर्ने जीवहरूलाई कति डिभिजनमा विभाजन गरिएको छ ? 

                Answer 👉 : वनस्पति जगत्मा पर्ने जीवहरूलाई अल्गी (Algae), बायोफाइटा (Bryophyta) ट्राकियोफाइटा (Tracheophyta) गरी मुख्य तीन डिभिजन ( division ) मा विभाजन गरिएको छ ।


                (ख) वनस्पति जगत्का मुख्य विशेषता लेख्नुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : वनस्पति जगत्का मुख्य विशेषताहरु यस प्रकार रहेका छन् :-

                (अ) यस अन्तर्गत एककोषीय, बहुकोषीय, हरितकन (chlorophyll) भएका वनस्पतिहरु पर्दछन ।

                (आ) यिनीहरूको शरीरको कोषमा हुने कोष भिता सेलुलोज (cellulose) ले बनेको हुन्छ ।

                (इ) यिनीहरू स्वपोषित (autotrophs) हुन्छन् ।

                (ई) यी वनस्पतिहरूमध्ये कुनै फुल फुल्ने र कुनै फूल नफल्ने हुन्छन ।

                (उ) स्पाइरोगाइरा, मार्केन्सिया, मस र उन्यू जस्ता वनस्पतिहरूको फुल फुल्दैन । तर सल्ला, तोरी, धान, आप, सुन्तला आदि जस्ता वनस्पतिहरूको फुल फुल्छ ।


                Class 10 Science SEE Guide | Unit - 2  Classification of Living Beings 2080


                (ग) जिम्नोस्पर्म र एन्जियोस्पर्ममा पर्ने बिरुवाहरुका समानता लेख्नुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : जिम्नोस्पर्म र एन्जियोस्पर्ममा पर्ने बिरुहरूका समानता यसप्रकार रहेका एन:-

                (१) ती दुवै बिरुवाहरु जमिनमा पाइन्छ ।

                (२) यो दुवै बिरुवाहरु एकलिङ्गी हुन्छ ।


                (घ) यदि तपाईलाई ट्राकियोफाइटामा पर्ने केही बिरुवाहरुका पातमात्र दिएर आफूले कक्षामा प्राप्त गरेको वर्गीकरणसम्बन्धी ज्ञानको प्रयोग गरी यी बिरुवाहरूको सबडिभिजन छुट्याउन भनियो । के यो सम्भव छ ? तर्कसहित स्पष्ट पार्नुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : Do it yourself Show this to your teacher



                (ङ) सबडिभिजन टेरिडोफाइटाका प्रमुख विशेषता लेख्नुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : सबडिभिजन टेरिडोफाइटाका प्रमुख विशेषताहरु यस प्रकार रहेका छन् :-

                (अ) यी बिरुवाहरुको बिउ हुँदैन तर जरा, काण्ड र पात प्रस्टसँग छुट्टिएको हुन्छ ।

                (आ) यिनीहरुमा जाइलम र फूलोइम जस्ता जटिल तन्तुको विकास भएको हुन्छ ।

                (इ) यी बिरुवाहरुको पातको पछाडिपट्टि खैरो दाना हुन्छ, जसलाई सोरस (sorus) भनिन्छ । यसले spore उत्पादन गर्छ ।

                (ई) यी विरुवाहरु ओसिलो र छाया भएको ठाउँमा पाइन्छ ।

                (उ) स्पोर (spore) अङ्कुरण भएर ग्यामेटोफाइट बन्छ।

                (ऊ) यिनीहरुको जीवन चक्रमा अल्टरनेसन अफ जेनेरेसन ( alternation of generation) हुन्छ।

                जस्तै : उन्यु (fern), लाइकोपोडियम (lycopodium), सिलाजिनेला (selaginella) आदि।


                (च) रोसनीले आफ्नो बगैचामा नयाँ बिरुवामा फूलेका फूलको मात्र अवलोकन गरेर त्यो बिरुवा मोनोकटिलेडनमा पर्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिन् । यस्तो गर्नु ठिक हो कि होइन, कारणसहित स्पष्ट पार्नुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : Do it yourself Show this to your teacher



                (छ) चित्रमा दुईओटा बिरुवाहरु देखाइएको छ । दुवै चित्र अवलोकन गर्नुहोस् र तल सोधिएका प्रश्नको Answer 👉 लेखुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : पहिलो चित्र सुन्तला, र अर्को चित्र साईकस रहेछ।

                (अ) यी दुई बिरुवाबिच तुलना गरी समानता र भिन्नता लेखुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : 

                समानता =

                यो दुवै फुल फुल्ने विरुवाहरु हुन् । यो दुवै एकलिङ्गी विरुवा हुन् ।


                भिन्नता = 


                १) यसको साना झारपातदेखि धेरै ठूलो सम्म हुन्छ ।

                २) यसको फलभित्र बिउ हुन्छ ।


                १) यसको पात लाम्चो र सियो जस्तो तिखो हुन्छ।

                २) यसको वास्तविक फूल र फल हुँदैन


                (ज) यो चार्टले जनावरहरूको चार समूह देखाउँछ माछा कुन समूहमा पर्छ ?

                Answer 👉 : D समूहमा ।


                (झ) फाइलम पोरिफेरामा पाचन प्रणाली विकास भएको हुँदैन । यिनीहरूमा पाचन कसरी हुन्छ, लेखुहोस् । 

                Answer 👉 : फाइलम पोरिफेरामा पर्ने जीवहरु बहुकोषीय हुन्छ र समुन्द्रमा पाइन्छ । यी जीवको शरीरमा धेरै छिद्र हुन्छन् ती छिद्रबाट खानालाई सोसेर लिन्छन् र शरीरमा उत्पादित अनावश्यक पदार्थलाई निष्कासन गर्छन् भन्ने फाइलम पोरिफेरामा पाचन प्रणाली विकास नभए पनि पाचन यसरी हुन्छ ।


                (ञ) राकेशले चउरमा खेल्दा खेल्दै एउटा नयाँ जनावर देखेछन् । उनले जन्तु जगत्को वर्गीकरणको ज्ञान प्रयोग गरेर उक्त जनावर कुन फाइलममा पर्छ भनेर कसरी पता लगाउँछन्, व्याख्या गर्नुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : राकेशले चउरमा खेल्दा खेल्दै देखेको नयाँ जनावर गड्यौला हो । उनले जन्तु जगतको वर्गीकरणको ज्ञान प्रयोग गरेर उक्त गंड्यौलाको शारीरिक बनावट राम्रोसँग अवलोकन गर्छ । त्यसका बारेमा अध्यन गरी विशेषता टिपोट गर्छ र थप जानकारीका लागि गड्यौलाका बारेमा इन्टरनेटमा खोज्छ र अरु विशेषताहरु टिपोट गर्छ । त्यपछि चार्टपेपरमा गड्यौलाको सफा चित्र बनाएर बोर्डमा टाँसेर गड्यौलाका विशेषता छलफल गर्छ । छलफलका आधारमा गड्यौलालाई कुन फाइलममा पर्छ भने पता लगाउन सकिन्छ । 


                (ट) सार्क र ह्वेल दुवै पानीभित्र बस्ने जनावर हुन् । यी जनावरका विशेषताका आधारमा यी दुईमध्ये कुनचाहिँ विकसित जनावर हो ? कारणसहित व्याख्या गर्नुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : विशेषताका आधारमा यी दुईमध्ये ह्वेल विकसित जनावर हो । किनकी ह्वेलको शरीर रौं ले ढाकिएको हुन्छ । र शरीरमा टाउको, घाँटी, जिउ र पुच्छर हुन्छ । यसले फोक्साबाट सास फेर्छन् । र यसको मुटुमा चार ओटा कोठा हुन्छन् र यसले सोमै बच्चा जन्माउँछन् र यो जमिन र पानी दुवैमा बस्छन् । जसले गर्दा ह्वेल एउटा विकसित जनावर हो ।


                (ठ) यहाँ दुईओटा जनावरको चित्र दिइएको छ, तुलनात्मक अध्ययन गरी तलका प्रश्नको Answer 👉 लेख्नुहोस् :

                Answer 👉 : पहिलो चित्र चमेरो र अर्को चित्र चील हुन ।


                (अ) यी जनावरहरू कुन फाइलम र क्लास अन्तर्गत पर्छन् ?

                Answer 👉 :

                जनावर  :  फाइलम  : क्लास

                चमेरो     : कोर्डेटा    : स्तनधारी

                चील      :  कोर्डेटा   : पंक्षी


                (आ) यी जनावरहरुविचका कुनै दुई समानता र असमानता लेख्नुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : 

                समानता =

                (क) यिनीहरु विषमतापी (poikilothermic) हुन्छन् ।

                (ख) यिनीहरु एकलिड्गी (unisexual) हुन्छन् ।


                असमानता =


                १) यिनीहरु को शरीर प्वाँख ले ढाकिएको हुन्छ।

                २) यिनीहरु फोक्सोले श्वासप्रश्वास गर्छन् ।



                १) यिनीहरुको शरीर रौँले ढाकिएको हुन्छ ।

                २) यिनीहरु फोक्सोबाट सास फेर्छन् ।


                (इ) यी जनावरको अध्ययनले क्रमविकासको अवधारणालाई कसरी स्पष्ट पार्छ ?

                Answer 👉 : विकासको क्रममा जीवहरुको अनुकूलताका लागि नयाँ नयाँ गुणहरूको विकास हुँदै जाँदा प्रजातीकरण हुँदै गयो र नयाँ नयाँ जीवहरुको उत्पत्ति हुँदै गयो । यहाँ पाइसिज वर्गभन्दा एम्स वर्ग स्यामेलिया वर्गको धेरै नजिक देखिन्छ । यसको अर्थ एम्स र म्यामेलिया, पाइसिजभन्दा धेरै कम वर्ष पहिले मात्र एउटै पूर्वजबाट प्रजातीकरण भएको देखिन्छ ।


                (ड) सजीवहरुको वर्गीकरण र क्रमविकासबिचको सम्बन्ध व्याख्या गर्नुहोस् ।

                Answer 👉 : विकासको क्रममा जीवहरुको अनुकूलताका लागि नयाँ नयाँ गुणहरूको विकास हुँदै जाँदा प्रजातीकरण हुँदै गयो र नयाँ नयाँ जीवहरुको उत्पत्ति हुँदै गयो । यहाँ पाइसिज वर्गभन्दा एभ्स वर्ग म्यामेलिया वर्गको धेरै नजिक देखिन्छ । यसैको अर्थ एम्स र म्यामेलिया, पाइसिजभन्दा धेरै कम वर्ष पहिले मात्र एउटै पूर्वजबाट प्रजातीकरण भएको देखिन्छ । पाइसिज, एभ्स र म्यामे लियाका साझा गुणले यी सबै जीव एउटै पूर्वजबाट विकास भएको जनाउँछ यसरी नै जन्तु जगत्मा पर्ने विभिन्न फाइलमका विशेषता अध्ययन गर्यो भने तिनीहरुबिच पनि साझा गुणहरू पाइन्छन् । यसबाट के प्रमाणित हुन्छ भने जन्तु जगत्मा पर्ने सबै जीवहरुका पूर्वज एउटै थिए । विकासको क्रममा विस्तारै नयाँ नयाँ प्रजातिको विकास हुँदै गयो ।


                (त) चित्रको अवलोकन गरी तलका प्रश्नको जवाफ दिनुहोस् :

                (अ) कुन जनावरको शरीरमा दुई कोठा भएको मुटु हुन्छ ? 

                Answer 👉 : माछा जनावरको शरीरमा दुई कोठा भएको मुटु हुन्छ ।


                (आ) कुन जनावरले बच्चालाई दुध चुसाउँछ ?

                Answer 👉 : बाघ जनावरले बच्चालाई दुध चुसाउँछ ।


                (इ) भ्यागुता र सर्पबिचका दुईओटा समानता लेख्नुहोस्।

                Answer 👉 : भ्यागुता र सर्पबिचका दुईओटा समानता यसप्रकार रहेका छन् :-

                (क) यिनीहरु विषमतापी (poikilothermic) हुन्छन् ।

                (ख) यिनीहरु एकलिङ्गी (unisexual) हुन्छन् ।


                (ई) यी जनावरमध्ये कुन कुनका शरीरमा हावाका थैली हुन्छन् ? 

                Answer 👉 : परेवा जनावरमध्ये कुन कुनका शरीरमा हावाका थैली हुन्छन् ।



                Class 10 SEE Science book all Unit Solution. click any unit and get complete solutions.

                Unit - 1 Scientific Learning

                Unit - 2 Classification of Living Beings

                Unit - 3 Honey Bee

                Unit - 4 Heredity

                Unit - 5 Physiological Structure and Life Process

                Unit - 6 Nature and Environment

                Unit - 7 Motion and Force

                Unit - 8 Pressure

                Unit - 9 Heat

                Unit - 10 Wave

                Unit - 11 Electricity and Magnetism

                Unit - 12 Universe

                Unit - 13 Information and Communication Technology

                Unit - 14 Classification of Elements

                Unit - 15 Chemical Reaction

                Unit - 16 Gases

                Unit - 17 Metal and Not metals

                Unit - 18, Hydrocarbon and its Compounds

                Unit - 19 , Chemicals used in Daily Life

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