Class 10 SEE English Guide | Unit-1 Current Affairs & Issues guide 2080

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Class 10 SEE English Guide

 Unit-1 

Current Affairs & Issues

A. The following words have two different meanings. Match each word with the meaning used in the context of the text above.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

a. glare πŸ‘‰ ii. an intense blinding light

b. curb πŸ‘‰ i. a stone edging to a pavement or raised path

c. hail πŸ‘‰ i. to call somebody in order to attract their attention

d. commute πŸ‘‰ ii. to travel regularly between workplace and home

e. serene πŸ‘‰ i. calm and peaceful

f. liability πŸ‘‰ ii. the state of being legally responsible for something

g. deploy πŸ‘‰ ii. to use something effectively

h. autonomous πŸ‘‰ i. a vehicle that has the technology to drive itself

i. perception πŸ‘‰ ii. the ability to understand the true nature of something


B. Choose the correct alternatives to complete the sentences below.

a. One of the features of automated cars is that.....

i. they wait for the passengers.

ii. they approach slowly.

iii. They have their own voice to welcome people into them

Answer πŸ‘‰ ii. they approach slowly.



Class 10 SEE English Guide 
Unit-1 Current Affairs & Issues guide 2080


b. Driverless technology is being widely used particularly in .....

i. the USA 

ii. the UK 

iii. the UAE...

Answer πŸ‘‰ i. the USA 


c. The positive impact of such technology on the environment is .....

i. it prevents road accidents.

ii. it paves the way to sustainable life.

iii. it reduces carbon production

Answer πŸ‘‰ iii. it reduces carbon production


d. One of the problems with driverless technology is that .....

i. it cannot deal with traffic system.

ii. it cannot deal with human drivers.

iii. it cannot cope with other cars.

Answer πŸ‘‰ ii. it cannot deal with human drivers.



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e. One of the biggest challenges of automated cars is .....

i. its safety from the human environment

ii. human safety from it

iii. its durability in the human environment...

Answer πŸ‘‰ iii. its durability in the human environment...


f. The automated technology developed so far is .....

i. completely trustworthy

ii. partly trustworthy

iii. not trustworthy at all...

Answer πŸ‘‰ ii. partly trustworthy



C. Answer the following questions.

a. Mention any three features of the driverless car.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

  • Sensing: Driverless cars use sensors such as radar, lidar, and cameras to perceive their surroundings and detect objects, pedestrians, and road conditions.
  • Artificial Intelligence: Driverless cars rely on advanced AI algorithms to process sensor data, make decisions, and navigate autonomously.
  • Connectivity: Driverless cars can communicate with other vehicles and infrastructure, enabling them to exchange information and coordinate their movements for improved safety and efficiency.


b. Describe the benefits of driverless technology.

Answer πŸ‘‰ Benefits of driverless technology include improved road safety, reduced traffic congestion, increased mobility for the elderly and disabled, and potential environmental benefits through optimized driving and reduced fuel consumption.

c. What, according to Camilla Fowler, is the special advantage of automated vehicles?

Answer πŸ‘‰ According to Camilla Fowler, the special advantage of automated vehicles is their ability to significantly reduce human errors, which are a leading cause of accidents on the road.


d. What are the problems with driverless vehicles in David Hynd's view?

 Answer πŸ‘‰ In David Hynd's view, some of the problems with driverless vehicles include the ethical dilemmas involved in decision-making during accidents, cybersecurity concerns, potential job displacement for professional drivers, and the need for regulatory frameworks to address legal and liability issues.


e. What are scientists doing to make driverless technology safer?

Answer πŸ‘‰ Scientists are working on various measures to enhance the safety of driverless technology, including improving sensor technologies, refining AI algorithms for better decision-making, conducting rigorous testing and validation processes, and developing robust cybersecurity protocols to protect against potential threats.


f. Do you think driverless technology is safer than human-controlled driving? Why?

Answer πŸ‘‰ The question of whether driverless technology is safer than human-controlled driving is still a matter of ongoing debate. While driverless cars have the potential to reduce human errors and increase safety, there are still challenges to overcome, such as addressing rare or unpredictable scenarios, ensuring the reliability of AI systems, and addressing potential vulnerabilities to cyberattacks. Extensive testing, advancements in technology, and regulatory oversight are necessary to demonstrate and ensure the safety of driverless vehicles.



D. Think of any three other areas where artificial intelligence (Al) has been used. What are the benefits of using Al in these areas? Share your ideas with the class.

Answer πŸ‘‰ Three other areas where artificial intelligence (AI) has been used are healthcare, finance, and customer service. Here are the benefits of using AI in these areas:

1. Healthcare:

  • Diagnosis and Treatment: AI can analyze large amounts of medical data, including patient records, lab results, and medical literature, to assist in diagnosing diseases and recommending personalized treatment plans.
  • Drug Discovery: AI algorithms can analyze molecular structures and predict the efficacy of potential drugs, accelerating the process of drug discovery and development.
  • Remote Patient Monitoring: AI-powered devices can collect and analyze data from wearable sensors, allowing for continuous monitoring of patient's health conditions and early detection of abnormalities.

2. Finance:

  • Fraud Detection: AI algorithms can analyze patterns in financial transactions to identify and prevent fraudulent activities, protecting individuals and organizations from financial losses.
  • Algorithmic Trading: AI can analyze vast amounts of financial data and make rapid trading decisions based on market trends and patterns, leading to more efficient and profitable trading strategies.
  • Risk Assessment: AI algorithms can assess the creditworthiness of individuals and businesses by analyzing various factors, helping financial institutions make informed lending decisions and manage risks effectively.

Customer Service:

  • Chatbots and Virtual Assistants: AI-powered chatbots can provide instant responses to customer queries, improving response times and enhancing customer satisfaction.
  • Personalized Recommendations: AI algorithms can analyze customer preferences, purchase history, and browsing behavior to provide personalized product recommendations, leading to increased sales and customer engagement.

  • Sentiment Analysis: AI can analyze customer feedback and social media data to gauge customer sentiment and identify areas for improvement in products or services, enabling companies to enhance customer experience.

Grammar I

A. Match the following statements with the correct reported speech and notice how the statements are changed.

a. Khushi said, "I go to school every day by bus."πŸ‘‰ Khusi said that she went to school every day by bus.

b. Karma said to me, "1 am sorry for coming late." πŸ‘‰ Karma apologised for coming late.

c. Susan says, "I will leave for Bhanu next week."πŸ‘‰ Susan says that she will eave for Bhanu the following.

d. Tshering said, " I will surely meet you this Saturday." πŸ‘‰ Tshering promised me to meet that Saturday.

e. "The bus leaves at six," said the agent.πŸ‘‰ The agent informed us that the bus left at six.

f. "I have already finished my project work," said She.πŸ‘‰ She said that she had alreadv finished her project work.

g. "I work from home these days," , said Yanjal.πŸ‘‰ Yanjal said that he worked from house those days.



B. Complete the following sentences with the correct reporting verbs.
[advised, admitted, warned, offered, thanked, agreed, informed, agreed, apologised, promised]
Answer πŸ‘‰ 

a. "I broke the mirror." He admitted that he had broken the mirror.

b. "I'd go and see a doctor if I were you," Pemba advised me to see a doctor.

c. "I will send you out if you make a noise again," said the librarian. The librarian warned me not to make a noise again.

d. "I can come and help you plant rice," said Raman. Raman offered to help me plant rice.

e. "The classes start from next week," said the assistant. The assistant informed us that the classes start from the following week.

f. Sonam said to me, "Thank you so much for your help." Sonam thanked me for my help.

g. "OK, I will return your money by Saturday," said Prakriti. Prakriti promised to return my money by Saturday.

h. "I will really work hard and score good grades," said Anupam. Anupam agreed to work hard and get good grades.

i. "I am sorry for coming late," said the speaker. The speaker apologised for coming late.



Writing I

The use of Al in technology is not only making people’s lives easier but bringing new challenges. Write a newspaper article about the challenges brought by the advancement of Al in technology.
Answer πŸ‘‰ 
Title: Navigating the Challenges of AI Advancement

Subtitle: Ethical, Privacy, Workforce, and Regulatory Hurdles in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

Date: [2023/06/06]

In the era of rapid AI advancement, the transformative potential of Artificial Intelligence is undeniable. However, alongside the benefits, a host of challenges have emerged, demanding our attention and proactive solutions.

Ethical considerations loom large as AI algorithms permeate various sectors. Bias embedded in training data can perpetuate inequalities, necessitating measures to ensure fairness and transparency. Striking the right balance is vital to prevent discriminatory outcomes in domains such as hiring and law enforcement.

Data privacy and security concerns are heightened as AI relies heavily on vast amounts of personal information. Safeguarding data while leveraging it for AI progress is a delicate act requiring robust measures to protect against breaches and ensure responsible use.

The impact on the workforce cannot be ignored. Automation and AI systems threaten to displace certain job functions, demanding reskilling and upskilling initiatives to empower workers for the evolving job market. Managing this transition with care is crucial to minimize adverse effects.

Accountability and transparency are paramount for AI systems. As AI algorithms become increasingly complex, ensuring clear lines of responsibility becomes imperative. Explainability and auditability of AI decisions should be prioritized to engender trust and address potential biases.

Harmonizing international standards and regulations is vital for the global nature of AI advancement. Collaboration among governments, organizations, and experts is necessary to establish ethical guidelines, privacy protection, and safety protocols, ensuring responsible AI development worldwide.

By embracing these challenges as opportunities, we can navigate the path forward and unlock the full potential of AI while preserving our core values and principles.



Open Letter to UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres

A. Fill in the blanks with the correct words given below.
[tackle, corporate, outrage, catalyse, at stake, net-zero, expertise]


a. The ..... headquarters of the company is in Dubai.

Answer πŸ‘‰ corporate

b. According to Greta, the leaders are failing to ....... the key issues.

Answer πŸ‘‰ tackle

c. Some viruses ..... the step in the production of other viruses.

Answer πŸ‘‰ catalyse

d. His ..... in business helped him greatly to run the company.

Answer πŸ‘‰ expertise

e. Nepal governing plans to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to .......

Answer πŸ‘‰ net-zero

f. He does not have good knowledge of the business. So, he has put his investment .....

Answer πŸ‘‰ at stake

g. His controversial remarks caused public ......

Answer πŸ‘‰ outrage





B. Write whether the following sentences are 'True' or 'False'. Write 'Not Given' if the information is not found in the letter.
a. Save the Children congratulates Antonio Guterres on his recent appointment as the General Secretary of the UN. πŸ‘‰ Not Given
b. The Youth Advisory Group on Climate Change was announced at the request of children between 18-21 years of age. πŸ‘‰ False
c. The dissatisfaction is that the representation of children is not inclusive. πŸ‘‰ True
d. Greta Thunberg protested for the right to a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment.  πŸ‘‰ True
e. The children demand their physical safety in the UK and Italy.πŸ‘‰ Not Given
f. The children think that they can participate in decision-making to fight against the climate crisis.πŸ‘‰True



C. Answer the following questions.
a. Where is the office of the UN Secretary-General?
Answer πŸ‘‰ The office of the UN Secretary-General is in New York.

b. What is the purpose of writing this letter to Antonio Guterres?
Answer πŸ‘‰ The purpose of writing this letter to Antonio Guterres is to request him to include children and adolescents younger than 18 in the Youth Advisory Group on Climate Change.

c. Why was the Youth Advisory Group announced?
Answer πŸ‘‰ The Youth Advisory Group was announced to advise Antonio Guterres on accelerating global action and the ambition to tackle the worsening climate crisis.

d. What roles have children played in the time of climate crisis?
Answer πŸ‘‰ Children have played the role of agents of change in the climate debate using their channels of influence - schools, social media, and street protests - to catalyze global activism on the climate crisis.

e. Describe Greta Thunberg and Fabrizio's contributions.
Answer πŸ‘‰ Greta Thunberg sparked the global movement through an inspiring solo protest in 2018 and children like Fabrizio are vocal in their anxiety that our dash to economic recovery will scupper climate change and net-zero commitments.

f. What is the final demand of the children?
Answer πŸ‘‰ The final demand of the children is to make the Youth Advisory Group on climate change inclusive of children and adolescents younger than 18, respecting their right to be heard and to contribute their children a safe space to influence these upcoming preparatory events.



D. As a student, what roles can you play to control climate change and its effects?
Answer πŸ‘‰ As a student, there are several roles you can play to control climate change and its effects:
  1. Raise Awareness: Educate yourself and others about climate change and its impact on the planet. Share your knowledge with peers, teachers, and the community through presentations, discussions, or organizing awareness campaigns.

  2. Practice Sustainable Habits: Adopt eco-friendly habits in your daily life. Reduce energy consumption by turning off lights and electronics when not in use, conserve water, practice recycling, and choose sustainable transportation options like walking, cycling, or carpooling.

  3. Advocate for Change: Use your voice to advocate for climate action. Join or start environmental clubs or student organizations to raise awareness, organize events, and engage in activism. Write letters to local government representatives urging them to prioritize renewable energy and sustainable policies.

  4. Promote Green Initiatives: Encourage your school to adopt eco-friendly practices such as installing solar panels, implementing recycling programs, or organizing tree-planting events. Work with teachers and administrators to integrate environmental education into the curriculum.

  5. Lead by Example: Inspire others through your actions. Be a role model by practicing sustainable habits, such as reducing waste, using reusable items, and choosing sustainable products. Encourage your peers to follow suit and form a positive ripple effect.

  6. Support Sustainable Projects: Get involved in local environmental initiatives or community projects focused on conservation, clean energy, or reforestation. Volunteer your time, participate in beach or park cleanups, or contribute to crowdfunding campaigns for sustainable projects.

  7. Stay Informed and Engaged: Stay updated on the latest developments in climate change and environmental science. Attend workshops, seminars, and conferences to expand your knowledge. Engage in discussions, ask questions, and seek opportunities to collaborate with like-minded individuals or organizations.


Listening
D. How can human beings minimize the effects of climate change? Discuss.
Answer πŸ‘‰ 
To minimize the effects of climate change, human beings can:
  1. Transition to clean and renewable energy sources.
  2. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency and sustainable transportation.
  3. Protect and restore natural habitats, including forests.
  4. Promote sustainable agriculture and food systems.
  5. Adopt a circular economy approach to minimize waste.
  6. Increase climate education and awareness.
  7. Foster international cooperation on climate action.
  8. Advocate for policies that support sustainability and emissions reduction.


Grammar II
A. Choose the correct alternatives to complete the sentences.
Answer πŸ‘‰ 

a. Abhilasha said that she witnessed the accident.

b. The teacher explained that the earth revolves round the sun.

c. Smarika says that she can't stay here anymore.

d. Sachita says that she loves to listen to music.

e. My brother reported that he had completed his homework.

f. My father said that the sun is very hot.

g. Jenifer said that she wants to be a nurse.



B. Rewrite the following sentences in indirect speech.
a. Raima said, "We had to cross the river and go ahead.
Answer πŸ‘‰ Raima said that they had to cross the river and go ahead.

b. Smarika said, " I will meet you tomorrow, friends."
Answer πŸ‘‰ Smarika said that she would meet her friends the following day.

c. "I can't come to school tomorrow," Chandani said.
Answer πŸ‘‰ Chandani said that she couldn't come to school the following day.

d. Dorje said, "Sorry, I cannot lend you any money today."
Answer πŸ‘‰ Dorje said that he could not lend me any money that day and apologized for it.

e. The teacher said, "Now, you can solve the remaining problems yourselves."
Answer πŸ‘‰ The teacher said that we could solve the remaining problems ourselves then.

f. The police said, "The incident probably took place yesterday."
Answer πŸ‘‰ The police said that the incident probably took place the day before.

g. I said to him, "I live in Changunarayan these days."
Answer πŸ‘‰ I told him that I lived in Changunarayan those days.

h. They said to us, "We would like to join you too."
Answer πŸ‘‰ They told us that they would like to join us too.

i. The Science teacher said, "The coal gives off thick smoke."
Answer πŸ‘‰ The Science teacher said that the coal gave off thick smoke.

j. Resham said, "I have never seen such a strange animal anywhere else."
Answer πŸ‘‰ Resham said she had never seen such a strange animal anywhere.

k. "I love my children more than wealth," the father said.
Answer πŸ‘‰ The father said that he loved his children more than wealth.



Writing II
Write a letter to the Mayor of your municipality or the Chairperson of your rural municipality requesting him/her to involve the representatives of children in the decision-making process related to children's issues in your municipality/rural municipality.
Answer πŸ‘‰ 
From Ram Nepal
Kathmandu

[Date - 2023/06/06]

To Balen Shah
Mayor's/Chairperson's Designation
Kathmandu Municipality

Subject: Involvement of Children's Representatives in Decision-Making Process

Dear [Mayor's/Chairperson's Name],

I am writing to request your support in involving representatives of children in the decision-making process concerning issues affecting them within our municipality/rural municipality. Including children's perspectives will promote inclusivity, safeguard their rights, and empower them to contribute to holistic solutions.

Establishing a Children's Advisory Council would provide a platform for children to express their opinions, offer feedback, and make recommendations on matters relevant to their lives. I kindly request your assistance in developing the framework for this council, ensuring a transparent and inclusive selection process.

By involving children in decision-making, we can create a more child-friendly municipality/rural municipality that values the rights and well-being of every child. I am eager to discuss this further and offer my support in this important endeavor.

Thank you for your attention. I look forward to your positive response.

Yours sincerely,

Ram Nepal



Extra Bit
Reading comprehension techniques

Reading a text with certain techniques helps us better comprehend it. Depending on the purpose of reading, we can adapt different strategies of reading.
Answer πŸ‘‰ 

Indeed, employing effective reading comprehension techniques can significantly enhance our understanding of a text. Here are some commonly used strategies:

  1. Skimming: Quickly scan the text to get a general overview of the content, focusing on headings, subheadings, and the first and last sentences of each paragraph. Skimming is useful when you want to assess the main idea or decide if the text is relevant to your needs.

  2. Scanning: Look for specific information by running your eyes quickly over the text to locate keywords, numbers, or names. Scanning is helpful when you're searching for particular details or verifying information.

  3. Active Reading: Engage actively with the text by highlighting or underlining key points, taking notes, or annotating. This technique promotes concentration and helps you remember and process information more effectively.

  4. Predicting: Before diving into the text, try to predict what it might be about based on headings, subheadings, or introductory paragraphs. This activates your prior knowledge and helps you form a mental framework to better comprehend the content.

  5. Questioning: Create questions in your mind while reading to stimulate deeper understanding. This involves asking yourself who, what, when, where, why, and how questions. It encourages active thinking and helps you extract relevant information from the text.

  6. Summarizing: After reading a section or the entire text, briefly summarize the main ideas or key points in your own words. This technique enhances comprehension by requiring you to process and synthesize the information.

  7. Visualizing: Create mental images or diagrams of the content as you read. Visualizing helps you form connections and improves memory and understanding, especially when dealing with complex or abstract concepts.

  8. Making Connections: Relate the text to your own experiences, prior knowledge, or other texts you have read. This technique aids in contextualizing the information and deepening comprehension.

Remember, the choice of reading technique depends on the purpose of reading. Adapt your approach accordingly, and don't hesitate to combine multiple techniques to enhance your comprehension and make the most out of your reading experience.

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