Class 10 SEE English Guide | Unit - 13 Population and Migration 2080

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 Unit - 13

Population and Migration

A Century of World Population Trends: 1950 to 2050

A. Match the following words with their correct meanings.

a. populous ๐Ÿ‘‰ v. having a large population; densely populated

b. mortality ๐Ÿ‘‰ vii. the number of deaths in a particular situation or period of time

c. projection ๐Ÿ‘‰ iii. an estimation of what figures will be in the future

d. demographic ๐Ÿ‘‰ ii. relating to the population and different groups within it

e. peak ๐Ÿ‘‰ ix. to reach the highest point or value

f. stabilization ๐Ÿ‘‰ iv. the process of making somebody/something unlikely to change

g. trajectory ๐Ÿ‘‰ i. a path followed by something

h. surpass ๐Ÿ‘‰ vi. to be greater than something; exceed

i. disparate ๐Ÿ‘‰ viii. completely dissimilar



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B. Complete the following sentences with the correct information from the text.

a. The highest population growth rate in the past hundred years was recorded in the 1960s.

b. Population growth rate is likely to reach around 9.7 billion by mid-twenty-first century.

c. The factors that determine the growth rate of world population are fertility, mortality, and international migration.

d. In the early 2020s, Eastern and South-Eastern Asia had the largest population.

e. The population of the sub-Saharan region is likely to reach around 2.7 billion by the end of the 2040s.

f. The low level of fertility will cause a fall in the population size of Europe and Northern America by the end of the century.

g. India is likely to exceed the population of China by the end of the 2020s.





C. Answer these questions.

a. What was the size of the world population in the mid- twentieth century?
๐Ÿ‘‰ The size of the world population in the mid-twentieth century was approximately 2.5 billion.

b. What was the fastest population growth rate in the past century?
๐Ÿ‘‰ The fastest population growth rate in the past century occurred in the 1960s.

c. Why has the population growth rate declined in the recent vears?
๐Ÿ‘‰ The population growth rate has declined in recent years due to factors such as improved access to education and healthcare, increased urbanization, and the availability of family planning methods.

d. What is the predicted world population size by 2050?
๐Ÿ‘‰ The predicted world population size by 2050 is estimated to be around 9.7 billion.

e. How do fertility and mortality contribute to the size of the population?
๐Ÿ‘‰ Fertility and mortality directly contribute to the size of the population. Fertility refers to the number of births, and higher fertility rates lead to population growth. On the other hand, mortality refers to the number of deaths, and higher mortality rates reduce the population size.

f. Which countries contribute to the largest population in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia?
๐Ÿ‘‰ The countries that contribute to the largest population in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia are primarily China and India.

g. Why will population regions have a different population variation in the next 30 years?
๐Ÿ‘‰ Population regions will have different population variations in the next 30 years due to factors such as variations in fertility rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, socio-economic conditions, and government policies specific to each region.

h. Which countries are most likely to contribute to the growth of world population by 2050?
๐Ÿ‘‰ The countries most likely to contribute to the growth of the world population by 2050 are India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and other countries with high fertility rates and large populations.



D. Do you think the world population will increase as projected in the text? Discuss.
๐Ÿ‘‰ Several factors can affect population growth, such as changes in fertility rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and socio-economic developments. It is important to consider that these factors can change over time, and unexpected events or interventions may alter the projected growth trajectory.

For instance, advancements in healthcare, education, and access to family planning methods can potentially lead to a decline in fertility rates and slower population growth. Additionally, factors like political instability, conflicts, natural disasters, and epidemics can disrupt population trends and impact population growth differently in different regions.

Moreover, population projections are based on assumptions about future trends, and even small variations in these assumptions can result in significant differences in the projected population size.

Therefore, while the projection in the text provides a reasonable estimate based on current trends, it is important to recognize that the actual population growth may deviate from these projections due to various unforeseen factors. Continuous monitoring and adaptation of policies and interventions are necessary to address the challenges and implications of population growth in a sustainable manner.



Grammar I
A. Match the sentence halves and make meaningful sentences.
๐Ÿ‘‰ ๐Ÿ‘‰ ๐Ÿ‘‰ ๐Ÿ‘‰ 
a. We continued the match, however, I always reach my office on time.

b. Dolma was selected for the post, yet it was not too cold.

c. Christina attended the class, despite looking very sociable.

d. I often leave home quite late, though it is not far from my home.

e. Chintamani never participates in social functions, although it was raining heavily.

f. It was snowing heavily, although we had the map of the town with us.

g. He did not give up even though she had no prior experience for the job.

h. I have never been to Bandipur, despite the fact that she was not feeling well.

i. We were lost in the town, in spite of the warnings of the doctor.


B. Complete the sentences below in a suitable way. Use the connectives of contradiction where necessary.
Answer  ๐Ÿ‘‰ 
a. Although I had not seen him before, I recognized him instantly.

b. Even though it was snowing outside, we decided to go for a walk.

c. In spite of his hard work, he couldn't meet the deadline.

d. Contrary to our expectations, Sarmistha gave a good speech at the function.

e. She spoke excellent French, but her Spanish was not as fluent.

f. Having not eaten anything since last evening, we were famished.

g. Despite our best efforts, we were not qualified for the final match.

h. Surprisingly, the restaurant was not very popular, yet the food was delicious.

i. Though I had studied hard, I could only attempt half of the questions.

j. Despite our efforts, she was not pleased with us at all.



Discovering Migration: What Birds Reveal

B. Complete sentences (a-f) with their correct endings (i-vii).
Answer  ๐Ÿ‘‰ 
a. In the past, people had the misconception that birds hid underground or changed into some other birds.
b. To supply themselves with energy, some birds stop to feed themselves with grains.
c. When the weather is favorable in spring, birds fly back to their habitats.
d. As a sign of partial migration, some birds choose to fly during the night.
e. To wait for a favorable weather, birds fly in large groups.
f. For better flying conditions, birds fly rapidly like the marathon players.


C. Answer these questions.

a. What is incredible about the migration of birds?
The incredible thing about the migration of birds is their ability to travel long distances, often across continents, to reach their breeding or wintering grounds.

b. What things do birds consider while flying to their destinations?
Birds consider factors like weather conditions, availability of food and water, and the presence of predators while flying to their destinations.

c. Which animals other than the birds migrate to new places?
Other animals that migrate to new places include certain species of fish, mammals (such as whales and caribou), and insects (such as monarch butterflies).

d. What do scoters dive underwater for?
Scoters dive underwater to search for and feed on their primary food source, which includes small fish, mollusks, and crustaceans.

e. Which birds travel up and down instead of going north to south?
Some birds, such as altitudinal migrants, travel up and down mountains or between different elevations instead of following a strictly north to south migration pattern.

f. What is partial migration of birds?
Partial migration refers to a situation where only a portion of a bird population migrates, while the rest of the population remains in their breeding or wintering grounds throughout the year.

g. Why can sea terns not stay long in water?
Sea terns cannot stay long in water because their bodies are not adapted for prolonged underwater activities. They are primarily aerial birds and depend on flying for hunting, feeding, and other activities. Their feathers are not fully waterproof, which limits their ability to stay in water for extended periods.

h. How do birds feed themselves during their journeys?
Birds feed themselves during their journeys by making frequent stops along their migration route to find food sources such as insects, seeds, fruits, and other small organisms. They may also rely on stored fat reserves that they accumulated prior to migration to sustain them during long flights between feeding locations.

i, What are the signs of birds flying in the night sky?
The signs of birds flying in the night sky include the formation of large flocks or V-shaped patterns as they migrate, the calls and sounds they make during flight, and their silhouettes against the moon or stars. Some birds, particularly nocturnal migrants, may also emit distinctive flight calls that can be heard during the night.


D. You might have seen or heard animals migrating to new places. What could be the reasons for animals to migrate? Discuss. There are several reasons why animals migrate to new places:

  1. Food availability: Animals may migrate to areas where food resources are abundant. This is especially common in seasonal environments where food availability changes throughout the year.

  2. Breeding opportunities: Many animals migrate to specific areas for breeding purposes. They seek out suitable habitats with ample resources and favorable conditions for reproduction and raising their young.

  3. Climate and weather: Animals may migrate to escape harsh weather conditions, such as extreme cold or drought. They move to regions with more favorable climates to ensure their survival and well-being.

  4. Predation and competition: Migration can also be driven by the need to avoid predators or reduce competition for resources. Animals may move to new areas where there are fewer predators or less competition for food and mates.

  5. Habitats and habitat loss: Some species migrate in response to changes in their natural habitats. If their habitats become degraded or destroyed, they may need to seek alternative locations for survival.

Overall, migration is an adaptive behavior that allows animals to optimize their chances of survival and reproductive success by exploiting different habitats and resources throughout the year.




Grammar II
A. Complete the sentences below with the correct alternatives from the brackets.
Answer  ๐Ÿ‘‰ 
a. Even though we have different ideologies, we are intimate friends.
b. Despite our hard efforts, we could not establish a hospital in the village.
c. Even though the film was very popular, it was a commercial failure.
d. I enjoyed all the luxuries of life despite the fact that I grew up in a remote village.
e. I watched a late-night movie. However, I didn't feel sleepy in the morning class.
f. Even though scientists have made lots of research, there is no evidence of life on Mars.
g. Even though my efforts, I can't ever score excellent marks in the exam.
h. My room was burgled, yet I had locked it securely before going out.
i. I called Siddhartha several times, but he did not respond.
j. Even though we had not invited them, they did not come to the party.



B. Join the following pairs of sentences with the connectives |given in the brackets.
Answer  ๐Ÿ‘‰ 
a. I was really exhausted, although I could not sleep well.
b. She did not meet the requirements; in spite of that, she was shortlisted for the job.
c. Even though the pay was quite low, I decided to work for the company.
d. We lost the match, yet we had prepared for the match really well.
e. Despite having badly injured her hand, Dipisha completed her assignment.
f. However, Kripa exercises every day, she is gaining weight.
g. Barcelona won the match; nevertheless, they were limited to ten players.
h. While I love to watch cricket on TV, my brother loves to watch football.
i. In spite of not having gone to bed until midnight, he woke up early in the morning.
j. Although he had not played well, he was selected for the school team.




Writing II

A large number of youths and professionals leave Nepal and migrate abroad each year. e an essay expressing your opinion about the impactsm’ such migration. 
Answer  ๐Ÿ‘‰ Title: The Impact of Migration: Challenges and Solutions

Introduction:
Migration has become a prevalent phenomenon in Nepal, with a significant number of youths and professionals opting to leave the country and seek opportunities abroad. This essay aims to discuss the impacts of such migration and explore potential solutions to address the challenges it poses.

Body:

Brain Drain and Skill Gap:
One of the primary concerns associated with migration is the brain drain effect. As talented individuals and skilled professionals leave the country, Nepal faces a significant loss of human capital. This brain drain leads to a skill gap in various sectors, hindering the country's development and progress.

Economic Remittances:
On the positive side, migration contributes to economic remittances. Nepali migrants send back a substantial amount of money to their families, which helps alleviate poverty and improve living standards. Remittances also contribute to the national economy through increased consumption and investment.

Social Impact:
Migration has social implications, particularly in terms of family separation. Many migrants leave behind their loved ones, causing emotional and psychological challenges for both the migrants and their families. Additionally, the absence of parents due to migration can lead to a lack of parental guidance and support for children left behind.

Loss of Skilled Workforce:
The departure of skilled professionals creates a void in key sectors such as healthcare, education, and technology. This loss hampers the progress of these sectors and impedes the overall development of the nation. Retaining skilled individuals within the country is crucial for Nepal to meet its social and economic demands.

Solutions:
a. Creating Opportunities: The government should focus on creating a conducive environment that fosters opportunities and growth within Nepal. This includes promoting entrepreneurship, attracting foreign investments, and improving the business climate to retain talent.

b. Enhancing Education and Training: Emphasizing quality education and skill development programs is vital to nurture a skilled workforce within the country. Strengthening vocational training institutes and universities can help bridge the skill gap and reduce reliance on foreign labor.

c. Policy Reforms: The government should implement policies that encourage the retention of skilled professionals. This could include offering competitive salaries, providing a supportive work environment, and creating career advancement opportunities.

d. Encouraging Return Migration: Initiatives should be taken to attract Nepali migrants back to their home country. This can be done by providing incentives, creating job opportunities, and ensuring a supportive social environment for their reintegration.

Conclusion:
While the migration of youths and professionals from Nepal has its advantages, it also poses significant challenges in terms of brain drain and skill gaps. However, through a combination of creating opportunities, enhancing education and training, implementing policy reforms, and encouraging return migration, Nepal can mitigate the negative impacts of migration and build a strong foundation for its future development. It is essential for all stakeholders, including the government, private sector, and civil society, to work together to address these challenges and harness the potential of Nepali talent within the country.






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