Class 10 SEE English Guide | Unit - 5 Science & Experiments 2080

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 Class 10 SEE English Guide

Unit - 5

Science & Experiments Guide


Yes, You Can Boil Water At Room Temperature

A. Find the words from the text that have the following meanings.
a. the height of an object or point in relation to sea level or ground level-altitude

b. a group of atoms bonded together-molecule

c. a state in which opposing forces are balanced-equilibrium

d. to change from a gas or vapour to a liquid- condense

e. a piece of unreliable information that is repeated so often that it is accepted as the fact- factoid

f. a space or container from which the air has been removed- vacuum

g. a device that is used to remove blockages fro
m the drain of a basin or tub-plunger


B. Complete the sentences with the correct words or phrases from the text.
a. Water bubbles break down if vapour pressure inside and outside the bubbles is equal.

b. As the altitude goes up, the boiling point of water decreases.

c. Random motion of molecules or particles is called thermal motion.

d. If the door does not open, try pushing the key in the lock.

e. Certain chemicals can induce undesirable changes in the nervous system.




C. Answer these questions.
a. What is the speed of the water particles compared with?
The speed of the water particles is compared with the height of a group of adult humans.

b. How are bubbles formed in the boiling water?
Bubbles are formed in boiling water when water molecules have enough energy to push back other water molecules in the liquid phase.

c. Mention two things on which external pressure depends.
External pressure depends on the depth of water and the density of water.

d. How is the atmosphere related to the pressure of water?
The atmosphere is related to the pressure of water as it contributes to the total pressure on the surface of the liquid. The atmosphere pushes down on the surface of the liquid, which increases the pressure in the liquid. So, the pressure of water is affected by both the atmospheric pressure and the pressure exerted by the water itself.

e. What would happen if the atmospheric pressure on the liquid water was decreased?
If the atmospheric pressure on the liquid water was decreased, it would also decrease the pressure in the liquid. If the pressure is reduced enough to bring it down to the same level as the vapor pressure, the water particles will have enough energy to form boiling bubbles without needing to increase the temperature.

f. What would the experimenter gain if s/he pulled the plunger out?
If the experimenter pulls the plunger out, it would decrease the pressure in the liquid and induce boiling.


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D. What would happen on the Earth if there were no gravity? Discuss possibilites with your friends.
Answer 👉 

If there were no gravity on Earth, the consequences would be significant and far-reaching. Here are some possibilities that you can discuss with your friends:

  1. Weightlessness: Without gravity, people and objects would no longer have weight. They would float freely in the air or drift in any direction. Moving around and controlling one's position would become a challenge.

  2. Disruption of the atmosphere: Gravity plays a crucial role in keeping our atmosphere in place. Without it, the atmosphere would gradually disperse into space, resulting in a lack of breathable air. This would make it impossible for humans and many other forms of life to survive.

  3. Altered celestial motions: Gravity is responsible for the orbits of celestial bodies, including the Earth's rotation around the sun and the moon's orbit around the Earth. Without gravity, these motions would be disrupted, potentially causing chaos in the solar system.

  4. Changes in geology: Gravity affects the formation of mountains, tectonic plate movement, and the overall stability of the Earth's crust. Without gravity, these geological processes would be significantly altered, potentially leading to unpredictable changes in the Earth's surface.

  5. Loss of water bodies: Gravity plays a vital role in holding water bodies like oceans, lakes, and rivers in place. Without gravity, water would disperse into the atmosphere, leaving the Earth dry and barren.

  6. Disrupted ecosystems: Many organisms, especially plants and animals, rely on gravity for various aspects of their lives, such as root growth, navigation, and reproduction. Without gravity, ecosystems would face immense challenges, and the survival of many species would be at risk.

  7. Impact on technology: Gravity is a crucial factor in the functioning of many technologies, such as transportation, communication satellites, and even simple day-to-day devices. Without gravity, the operation of these technologies would need to be reimagined or possibly rendered useless.

These are just a few possibilities to consider when discussing the absence of gravity on Earth. It highlights the fundamental role that gravity plays in shaping our planet and sustaining life as we know it.





Grammar I
A. Match the clauses with their appropriate continuation.
a. If you go to Taplejung -iii. you can see the Pathibhara temple.

b. You will get well soon- i. if you follow the doctor's advice.

c. The horse won't kick you -ii. unless you go behind it.

d. If I were you -vi. I would see a doctor.

e. What happens -iv. if you heat water?

f. I would miss the bus- v. if I did not reach the bus stop on time.

g. Provided that they discussed properly -vii. they won't have misunderstanding.

h. As long as they communicate well- viii. the problem might be solved.



B. Complete the following sentences using the correct form of verbs in brackets.
a. If it is cold, I will wear a coat.

b. If Purna helps with the housework, his mother will have more time for him.

c. If I were a bird, I would make a good observation of the land below.

d. If I went to Mustang, I would visit Muktinath.

e. If I were a billionaire, I would buy a castle.

f. You'd save petrol if you drove more carefully.

g. Say 'hello' if you see her.

h. Provided that you consent, I will take a few days' leave next week.

i. Take care of the pence, the pounds will take care of themselves.



Writing I
Write stepwise instructions to draw a jellyfish as given below. You may use the following words and phrases.
[circle, lines, semi-straight, creaky, on top of, above, below]

Stepwise Instructions to Draw a Jellyfish:

  1. Start by drawing a large circle in the center of your paper. This circle will be the main body of the jellyfish.

  2. From the bottom of the circle, draw a few curved lines that extend downward. These lines will represent the long tentacles of the jellyfish.

  3. Next, draw a smaller circle on top of the main body. This will be the jellyfish's head or bell.

  4. Inside the smaller circle, draw a few semi-straight lines extending downward. These lines will create a creaky appearance, mimicking the texture of the jellyfish.

  5. Above the main body, draw a series of wavy lines that curve outward. These lines will form the jellyfish's flowing and frilly top, known as the "oral arms."

  6. Add some details to the tentacles by drawing small lines or dots along their length. This will give the impression of suction cups or stingers.

  7. To create a sense of depth, draw some smaller circles or ovals below the main body of the jellyfish. These will represent other parts of its body that are further away.

  8. Finally, add some shading or color to your drawing to bring the jellyfish to life. Use light and soft colors to capture its ethereal and delicate nature.

Remember to take your time and have fun while drawing the jellyfish. Feel free to add your own creative touches and make it uniquely yours.


The Voice Of The Rain

Summary of the Poem "Voice of the Rain":

"Voice of the Rain" by Walt Whitman is a free verse poem that celebrates the beauty, sound, and significance of rain. The speaker describes the rain's gentle patter, its growing intensity, and the way it sings as it falls. The poem explores the various forms and effects of rain, highlighting its impact on different surfaces and its ability to bring life and purification to the natural world. Whitman suggests that rain possesses a soul and communicates with the speaker in a language he understands. Overall, the poem emphasizes the profound connection between humanity and the environment, urging readers to appreciate and listen to the voice of the rain.


A. Match the words with their meanings.
a. eternal - vii. never-ending

b. impalpable - v. not easily understood

c. vaguely - ii. unclearly

d. descend- i. come down

e. lave- vi. to pour out as water

f. atomizes- iii. indivisible particles

g. reck- iv. to take care of



B. Fill in the blanks by choosing the words given below.
[impalpable, recks, globe, drought, beautify, latent]
Answer 👉 
a. The river ran dry during the drought

b. It is still impalpable to understand how the earth originated.

c. The company produces a wide variety of make-up and skin care products designed to gently and effectively beautify human skin.

d. His greatest ambition is to sail around the globe

e. Without training, his musical talent remained latent

f. What  recks it whether they win or lose?



C. Complete the summary of the poem using suitable words or phrases given below.
[quenches, rhythm, mysterious, heal, atomies, condensation, ascends, showers, originality]

Summary of the Poem "Voice of the Rain":

"Voice of the Rain" by Walt Whitman is a free verse poem that celebrates the beauty, rhythm, and mysterious nature of rain. The poem describes how rain begins with a delicate pattern and gradually grows in intensity, forming a mighty torrent. It sings as it falls, creating a mellow, liquid murmur that fills the air.

The rain showers upon different surfaces, such as rooftops and leaves, producing various sounds and patterns. It quenches the thirst of plants and animals, bringing life and vitality to the natural world. The rain's healing properties cleanse and purify the atmosphere and the earth. It has a soul that speaks in a language understood by the speaker.

The poem highlights the originality and creativity of rain, as it condenses from tiny atomies into droplets and ascends to the sky. The rain's voice is a mysterious and powerful force that connects humanity to the environment. It evokes a sense of awe and appreciation for the natural world and its intricate processes.



D. Answer the following questions.
a. What are the two voices in the poem? Who do they belong to?
The two voices in the poem are the speaker and the rain. They belong to the earth.

b. How is the cyclical movement of the rain shown in the poem?
The cycling movement of the rain is shown in the poem by describing how it rises from the land and sea as water vapour, ascends into the sky, takes the form of clouds, and then descends back to the earth as rain to wash away dust and quench the thirst of the dry earth.

c. Why are the showers necessary for the Earth?
The showers are necessary for the earth because they provide moisture to plants and animals, wash away dust and pollutants, and help in the purification and beautification of the earth.

d. How are the rain and music similar?
The rain and music are similar as they both have a rhythm and the power to calm, heal, transform, and thrill.

e. How are the clouds formed?
The clouds are formed when water vapor rises from the earth and then cools and condenses into tiny droplets, which then accumulate and form larger droplets that eventually fall to the earth as rain.

f. List the pairs of opposite words in the poem.
  • rise/descend
  • rain/draught
  • day/night
  • reck'd/unreck'd (recked/unrecked)



E. What may happen on the Earth if it does not rain for a long time? Discuss in a group.
Answer 👉 In a group discussion about the consequences of a prolonged absence of rain on Earth, several possibilities and effects can be explored:
  1. Drought and Water Scarcity: Without rain, water sources such as rivers, lakes, and reservoirs would gradually dry up, leading to severe water scarcity. This would affect not only drinking water supplies but also agriculture, industries, and overall ecosystem health.

  2. Crop Failure and Famine: Lack of rain means crops would struggle to grow, leading to reduced agricultural yields and crop failures. This would have a significant impact on food production, potentially leading to food shortages and famine, particularly in regions heavily reliant on agriculture.

  3. Ecological Imbalance: Rain plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems. The absence of rain can disrupt the natural water cycle, impacting plant growth, animal habitats, and biodiversity. Forests, wetlands, and other ecosystems would suffer, potentially leading to the loss of plant and animal species.

  4. Forest Fires: Dry conditions resulting from a lack of rain increase the risk of wildfires. Without rain to help control and extinguish fires, they can spread rapidly and devastate vast areas of forests and wildlife habitats.

  5. Economic Impact: The consequences of no rain would extend beyond agriculture and ecological impacts. Industries reliant on water, such as hydroelectric power generation, fisheries, and tourism, would suffer. Water-dependent sectors may face significant economic losses and job cuts.

  6. Health Issues: Water scarcity and poor sanitation resulting from the lack of rain can lead to various health problems. Limited access to clean water can increase the risk of waterborne diseases, compromising public health and putting vulnerable populations at greater risk.

  7. Climate Change Feedback: Rainfall is a crucial part of the Earth's climate system. A prolonged absence of rain could disrupt regional and global weather patterns, potentially exacerbating climate change and its associated impacts.

It is important to note that the consequences of a long-term absence of rain would vary depending on geographical location, climate, and existing water management systems. However, overall, the effects would be severe and wide-ranging, affecting ecosystems, food security, economies, and public health. The group discussion could also involve brainstorming potential solutions and strategies to mitigate the impacts of water scarcity and promote sustainable water management practices.



Grammar II
A. Complete the following sentences using the correct form of verbs in brackets.
a. If Gaurab were the captain, the team ... (play) better.
Answer 👉 would play

b. I .....(call) you had I known you were in Nepal.
Answer 👉 would have called

c. If he ... ....(not/come ) to Nepal. he would not have seen Mt. Everest.
Answer 👉 didn't come

d. Had you arrived a bit earlier, you... . . ..(see) Manashi.
Answer 👉  would have seen

e. We could slow down global warming if we... ....(reduce) eneray consumption.
Answer 👉 reduced

f. If he were to see me, he .......(know) me at once.
Answer 👉 would know

g. Were Rijisa in the USA, she... .. . (be) working for a company.
Answer 👉 would be

h. How would you feel if someone .....(ask) you for an autograph?
Answer 👉 asked

i. What....(you/do) if Keshab had proposed you for marriage?
Answer 👉 would you have done

j. If I ......(have) a life jacket, I could certainly swim across the river.
Answer 👉 had



Class 10 SEE English Guide
Unit - 5
Science & Experiments Guide



B. Complete the following sentences with appropriate clauses.
a. If you don't leave soon,......
Answer 👉 If you don't leave soon, you will miss your bus.

b. If it rains in winter,......
Answer 👉 If it rains in winter, you will feel colder.

c. ...... as long as you tell the truth.
Answer 👉  You will not get into trouble as long as you tell the truth.

e. A country cannot develop unless ......
Answer 👉 A country cannot develop unless it invests in education and infrastructure.

f. .......if they insult you?
Answer 👉  What will you do if they insult you?




Writing II
B. Write a letter of complaint to the concerned authority about the unmanaged garbage in your locality. Mention the hazards of unmanaged garbage to public health and suggest some measures to solve the problem.
Answer 👉 

[Your Name] [Your Address] [City, State, ZIP Code] [Email Address] [Phone Number] [Date]

[Name of Concerned Authority] [Title/Position] [Organization/Department] [Address] [City, State, ZIP Code]

Subject: Complaint Regarding Unmanaged Garbage in [Your Locality]

Dear [Concerned Authority],

I am writing to express my concern about the unmanaged garbage situation in our locality. The accumulation of waste is posing significant hazards to public health and the overall well-being of the community.

The unattended garbage has become a breeding ground for disease-carrying pests and emits foul odors, contributing to respiratory problems and other health issues. Additionally, it tarnishes the aesthetic appeal of our locality, impacting businesses and community growth.

To address this issue, I recommend the following measures:

  1. Regular Garbage Collection: Implement a structured system for prompt waste removal.

  2. Segregation and Recycling: Encourage residents to segregate waste and establish recycling centers.

  3. Public Awareness Campaigns: Conduct informative campaigns to educate the community about proper waste disposal.

  4. Enforcement of Penalties: Impose stricter penalties for littering and improper waste disposal.

  5. Community Participation: Organize cleanup drives and foster community involvement in waste management initiatives.

I urge you to take immediate action to resolve this problem and create a cleaner and healthier environment for our community.

Thank you for your attention to this matter.

Sincerely,

[Your Name]




Project work
Study a local technology used in your locality, Take notes of its working principles and present it to the class.
Answer 👉 

Title: Local Technology: Biogas Plant

Introduction: Today, I would like to present to you a local technology that has been widely adopted in our locality: the Biogas Plant. This innovative technology harnesses the power of organic waste to produce clean and renewable energy in the form of biogas. Let's delve into its working principles and understand its significance.

Working Principles:

  1. Feedstock Collection: The process begins by collecting organic waste such as kitchen waste, agricultural residues, animal manure, and sewage.

  2. Fermentation: The collected feedstock is then fed into an airtight container called the digester, which facilitates the fermentation process. The digester provides an oxygen-free environment, allowing bacteria and microorganisms to break down the organic matter.

  3. Anaerobic Digestion: Within the digester, anaerobic bacteria decompose the organic material, resulting in the production of biogas. Anaerobic digestion is a natural process where organic matter is broken down in the absence of oxygen, releasing methane and carbon dioxide gases.

  4. Biogas Collection: The generated biogas, primarily consisting of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), rises to the top of the digester, where it is collected and stored.

  5. Gas Utilization: The collected biogas can be utilized for various purposes. It can be used for cooking, heating, and lighting by connecting the biogas plant to gas stoves, lamps, or other appliances. Biogas can also be used to generate electricity and meet the energy needs of the community.

Significance:

  1. Renewable Energy: The use of biogas provides a renewable source of energy, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Waste Management: Biogas plants effectively handle organic waste, reducing the burden on landfills and preventing the release of harmful greenhouse gases during decomposition.

  3. Environmental Benefits: Biogas production reduces the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. Additionally, it helps in reducing air pollution by replacing traditional biomass fuels and fossil fuels.

  4. Cost Savings: Utilizing biogas for cooking and heating purposes can significantly reduce household energy expenses, especially in rural areas where alternative fuel sources may be expensive or scarce.



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