Class 10 SEE English Guide | Unit - 2 Festivals and Celebrations 2080

Book Soluction Nepal

 Class 10 SEE English Guide

Unit - 2

Festivals and Celebrations

Battle of Oranges

A. Match the words with their meaning.

a. mush 👉 iii. a soft thick mass of mixture

b. jerk 👉 v. to make something move with a sudden short sharp movement

c. concussion 👉 vi. a temporary loss of consciousness

d. hurl 👉 i. to throw something violently in a particular direction

e. pulp 👉 vii. the soft part inside the fruits and vegetables

f. clutch 👉 ii. to hold something tightly

g. sip 👉 iv. to drink something, taking a very small amount each time

B. Write 'True' for true statements and 'False' for false ones.

a. The tourists are informed to wear a red hat through public notices. 👉 True

b. Aranceri seems dressed in Doctor Whoesque costumes.👉 True

c. When a cart approaches, aranceri run away from the square. 👉 false

d. The narrator feels bored during the festival period. 👉 false

e. The volunteers encourage the visitors to join the battle. 👉 false

f. The narrator accepts Massi's offer. 👉 false

C. Answer the following questions.

a. What does the red hat symbolize?

Answer👉 The red hat is a symbol of the carnival itself and also represents freedom, as it was historically worn by slaves who had been freed and by peasants fighting against feudal lords during the Middle Ages.

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b. How does the narrator feel when she wipes her face?

Answer👉 The narrator feels shocked and worried when she wipes her face, as she initially thinks the substance she sees is blood, which causes her to fear she may need medical attention.

c. What does the square look like after an hour battle of the oranges?
Answer👉 After an hour-battle of the oranges, the square is covered in a thick layer of orange pulp and horse manure, creating a sludgy and messy scene. The mixture emits a strong and pungent odor, which can be described as sharp, sweet-and-sour.

d. How do aranceri members chase the cart?
Answer👉 The aranceri members chase the cart by running behind it and throwing oranges at it.

e. Does Silvia enjoy this carnival?
Answer👉 Yes, she does. She says that this is the moment they wait for all the year, and carnival is good for their psychological health.

f. Why does Massi say, "Forget the nets."?
Answer👉 Massi says "Forget the nets" because he believes that if people want to truly experience the carnival, they need to be in the middle of the battle.

D. You might know about some unique festivals like "Battle of the Oranges". Collect some information about any one of such festivals.
Answer👉 La Tomatina is a unique and vibrant festival that takes place in the small town of Buñol, located in the province of Valencia, Spain. Every year, on the last Wednesday of August, thousands of people gather in the narrow streets of Buñol to engage in an epic battle of tomatoes. This iconic event has gained international fame and attracts participants from all corners of the globe.

The origins of La Tomatina are shrouded in mystery, with various theories about how the festival came to be. One popular story suggests that it began in 1945 when a group of young people wanted to participate in a traditional parade during the town's festivities. When they were denied access, they took matters into their own hands and started a tomato fight instead. The spirited exchange became an instant hit and has been repeated ever since.

The festival kicks off in the morning with the "palo jabón," a greased pole topped with a ham. Participants try to climb the pole to reach the ham, while spectators cheer them on. Once someone manages to reach the prized ham, the signal is given, and trucks carrying tons of ripe tomatoes roll into the streets, ready for the chaos to begin.

As soon as the tomato fight commences, the air is filled with excitement and laughter. Participants gleefully hurl tomatoes at one another, transforming the town into a sea of red pulp. It's a delightful sight as strangers become friends in the midst of this juicy battle. People wear goggles and old clothes to protect themselves from the inevitable tomato projectiles, and the streets are covered in a thick layer of tomato mush.

The festival lasts for about an hour, during which time participants revel in the joyful mayhem. Once the tomato fight comes to an end, fire trucks and locals armed with hoses help wash away the tomato residue, and the town is quickly restored to its original state. The festivities continue with music, dancing, and the enjoyment of traditional Spanish cuisine and refreshing drinks.

La Tomatina has become one of Spain's most famous and beloved festivals, attracting not only locals but also curious visitors from around the world. The event's popularity has grown so much that Buñol has had to impose restrictions on the number of participants to ensure safety and preserve the town's infrastructure. Despite these measures, the spirit of La Tomatina remains alive and well, creating unforgettable memories for all who take part.

Beyond the sheer fun and excitement, La Tomatina has come to symbolize the Spanish spirit of revelry and celebration. It is a testament to the joyous and carefree nature of the human spirit, where people from different backgrounds can come together in a shared experience of exhilaration and camaraderie.

La Tomatina is a truly unique festival that captures the imagination and brings out the playful side in everyone who attends. It stands as a testament to the power of traditions, community, and the ability to embrace life's joyful moments, no matter how messy they may be.

Grammar - I
A. Change the following sentences into indirect speech. The beginning of each sentence is given.
a. "Are you working tonight?"
Agaman asked Timothy if he was working tonight.

b. "Is thsi the road to the station?"
A stranger wanted to know from me if that was the road to the station.

c. "Did you do your homework?"
My friend inquired her if she had done her homework.

d. "Have you been to Paris?"
The tourist was asked if he had been to Paris.

e. "How long have you been working in this company?"
Usha inquired Anuj how long he had been working in that company.

f. "What flavour ice cream did you have at the pary?"
My mother asked me what flavor ice cream I had at the party.

g. "Have you studied reported speech before?"
The teacher wanted to know if they had studied reported speech before.

h. " Where will you stay tonight?"
I asked him where he would stay that night.

i. "How many players were shown yellow card by the referee?"
Sumangal asked his friend how many players had been shown yellow cards by the referee.

j. "What magic did the medicine have on the patient?"
Sarita wanted to know from Sommaya what magic the medicine had on the patient.

B. Change the following remarks into reported speech.
a. Kritika asked me, "why did you go out last night?"
Kritika asked me why I had gone out the previous night.

b. "Who was that beautiful woman, Usha?" said Sunita.
Sunita asked Usha who that beautiful woman had been.

c. "How is your mother?" said Gaurab to Yang Dolma.
Gaurab asked Yang Dolma how her mother was.

d. My friend wanted to know, "What are you going to do at the weekend?"
My friend asked me what I was going to do at the weekend.

e. "Where will you live after graduation?" said my teacher.
My teacher asked me where I would live after graduation.

f. Anusha said to Melisha,"What were you doing when I saw you?"
Anusha asked Melisha what she had been doing when she had seen her.

g. I said to the piligrim, "How was the journey?"
I asked the pilgrim how the journey had been.

h. "How often do you go to cinema?" said Krishana.
Krishna asked how often I went to the cinema.

i. "Do you live in Patan?" said the Principal.
The Principal asked if I lived in Patan.

j. Niraj said to Luniva,"Did Phadindra arrive on time?"
Niraj asked Luniva if Phadindra had arrived on time.

Writing I
Write an essay describing a festival which is celebrated in your community. Include its brief history, people involved, major activities, religious or social importance, duration, and drawbacks, if any.
Answer👉 Dashain is a captivating Nepali festival celebrated with great enthusiasm and fervor in my community. This significant cultural event holds a deep-rooted historical and mythological background, symbolizing the triumph of good over evil. Spanning fifteen days, Dashain brings people from all walks of life together to immerse themselves in a myriad of activities and rituals.

The festival revolves around the worship of the goddess Durga, who is believed to have vanquished the demon Mahishasura. Families gather in homes and temples to offer prayers, perform elaborate rituals, and seek blessings from the deity. The air is filled with a sense of devotion and spirituality as incense fills the surroundings, and the sound of bells and chants resonates through the air.

One of the most exciting aspects of Dashain is the exchange of blessings among family members and relatives. Elders offer tika (a mixture of vermilion, rice, and yogurt) on the foreheads of younger family members, accompanied by well wishes for prosperity, good health, and success. This ritual strengthens familial bonds and is an expression of love and respect.

Kite-flying is an integral part of Dashain and adds an element of fun and excitement to the festivities. Colorful kites of various sizes soar high in the sky, painting a vibrant backdrop against the backdrop of the mountains. People of all ages participate in friendly competitions, showcasing their skills and creativity in maneuvering the kites. The sky becomes a tapestry of colors and patterns, evoking a sense of freedom and joy.

Dashain holds immense religious importance, serving as a time for introspection, gratitude, and seeking blessings. It is also a period for reconciliation and forgiveness, as people mend broken relationships and embrace forgiveness as part of the festival's ethos. The festival reinforces the values of unity, compassion, and togetherness within the community.

Reading II
Answer the following questions
a. What are the main festivals celebrated in your community?

In my community in Nepal, the main festivals celebrated are:

  1. Dashain: Dashain is the most significant and widely celebrated festival in Nepal. It marks the victory of good over evil and commemorates the goddess Durga's triumph over the demon Mahishasura. Dashain is a time of family gatherings, feasts, worship, and the exchange of blessings. It symbolizes the renewal of faith, the strengthening of familial bonds, and the celebration of prosperity.

  2. Tihar: Tihar, also known as Deepawali or the Festival of Lights, is another prominent festival celebrated in my community. It spans five days and is dedicated to honoring different elements of nature, including crows, dogs, cows, and brothers. The festival is characterized by the illumination of homes with oil lamps, colorful decorations, music, dances, and the exchange of blessings. Tihar represents the celebration of life, gratitude towards nature, and the importance of harmonious relationships.

  3. Holi: Holi, known as the Festival of Colors, is a joyous celebration of the arrival of spring. It is a vibrant and lively festival where people throw colored powders and water at each other, sing and dance, and indulge in festive treats. Holi symbolizes the victory of good over evil, the arrival of warmer weather, and the spirit of unity and playfulness.

b. Why are they celebrated? Discuss.

These festivals are celebrated for various reasons, including religious, cultural, and social significance. They hold deep-rooted traditions and beliefs that have been passed down through generations.

Dashain is celebrated to honor the goddess Durga and to seek her blessings for prosperity, good health, and protection from evil forces. It also serves as an occasion for families to come together, reconcile, and strengthen their bonds. The festival represents the victory of good over evil and embodies the spirit of joy, unity, and renewal.

Tihar is celebrated to show gratitude to nature and various animals that play important roles in our lives. The festival's rituals and celebrations reflect the deep-rooted connections between humans and nature. It is a time to express gratitude, seek blessings for prosperity, and celebrate the relationships we share with different beings.

Holi is celebrated to welcome the arrival of spring, bidding farewell to the winter season. The festival symbolizes the triumph of good over evil, as depicted through the story of the demoness Holika's destruction. Holi brings people together, erases social barriers, and spreads the message of love, friendship, and forgiveness.

Thanksgiving around the World
A. The meanings of some of the words from the text are given below. Find the words and write against the correct meanings.
a. in a way occurring at irregular intervals; not continuous or study intermittently
b. to remind people of an important event or person from the past commemorate
c. in a way that shows the usual qualities or features of a particular type of person or thing typically
d. a curved shape that is wide in the middle and pointed at each end crescent-shaped
e. full of life and energy vibrant
f. a person who is having fun in a noisy way, usually with a group of other people reveller
g. from or in another country; seeming exciting and unusual exotic
h. to spread through and be easy to notice pervade
i. brightly coloured and likely to attract attention flamboyant
j. done quickly and with a lot of activity, but not very well organized haphazardly

B. The following events represent different activities observed during Thanksgiving around the world. Study them carefully and write the names of countries where they are celebrated.
a. Families gather for a feast in the evening accompanied by dancing and singing. – Libaria
b. People wear new clothes and get community blessings. - Iran
c. Palm nut soup, fish and traditional Kpokoi are served. – Ghana
d. People return to their hometowns to celebrate the festival.- South Korea
e. Celebrants go to the beach in a noisy way. – Brazil
f. Parades are taken out in the streets. - USA
g. Food and wine are offered to the forefathers. – South Korea

C. Answer the following questions.
a. What is the main feature of American Thanksgiving?
The main feature of American Thanksgiving is a festive meal shared with family and friends, typically centered around a roasted turkey and traditional side dishes like mashed potatoes, stuffing, and pumpkin pie.

b. What do parades include in Thanksgiving in America?
Parades in Thanksgiving in America often include floats, marching bands, giant balloons, and performances. The most famous Thanksgiving parade is the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade held in New York City.

c. When and why is Chuseok celebrated in Korea?
Chuseok is celebrated in Korea in autumn, typically in September or October. It is a major harvest festival honoring ancestors and giving thanks for the year's bountiful harvest. Families gather, pay respects to their ancestors, and enjoy feasts and traditional activities.

d. How did Thanksgiving begin in Brazil?
Thanksgiving in Brazil, known as Dia de Ação de Graças, was influenced by American traditions and began in the early 1940s. It is celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November and involves gathering with loved ones, expressing gratitude, and sharing a festive meal.

e. Who started Thanksgiving in Liberia? Why was it started?
Thanksgiving in Liberia was initiated by freed American slaves who settled in Liberia in the early 19th century. It was started as a way to express gratitude for their newfound freedom and to honor their American heritage. Today, Thanksgiving is celebrated as a national holiday in Liberia on the first Thursday of November.

f. What is Thanksgiving celebrated in Barbados for?
Thanksgiving in Barbados is celebrated to commemorate the arrival of the first British settlers in 1627. It is a time to reflect on the island's history, give thanks for blessings, and celebrate Barbadian culture and heritage.

g. What is Homowo marked in Ghana?
Homowo is a harvest festival celebrated by the Ga people in Ghana. It is marked with a series of rituals, including the sprinkling of food to ward off hunger and the remembrance of ancestral spirits. Homowo is a time for reflection, thanksgiving, and the celebration of the Ga culture and traditions.

D. How do people extend their gratitude for food and harvest in your community? 

In my community, people extend their gratitude for food and harvest through various cultural practices and traditions. One common way is by offering prayers and performing rituals to express thankfulness to the deities or spirits associated with agriculture and harvest.

During harvest seasons, special ceremonies and pujas (religious rituals) are organized at temples or sacred places dedicated to agricultural deities. These ceremonies involve offerings of freshly harvested crops, fruits, and flowers, along with the chanting of prayers and hymns. The community gathers to participate in these rituals, expressing their gratitude for the abundance of food and seeking blessings for future harvests.

Another way people show gratitude for food and harvest is through community feasts and sharing. During festivals or special occasions, families and communities come together to prepare elaborate meals using locally grown and harvested ingredients. These feasts are often shared with neighbors, friends, and less fortunate members of the community, promoting a sense of unity, generosity, and gratitude.

Additionally, cultural dances, songs, and performances related to farming and harvest are often organized to celebrate the agricultural heritage of the community. These artistic expressions not only showcase the importance of food and harvest but also serve as a way to express gratitude and honor the hard work of farmers and agricultural practices.

Furthermore, sustainable farming practices and environmental awareness are also emphasized in our community as a way to show gratitude for the bountiful harvests we receive. There is a growing emphasis on organic farming, agroforestry, and water conservation techniques that promote the health of the land and preserve the natural resources for future generations.

Overall, people in my community extend their gratitude for food and harvest through religious ceremonies, community feasts, cultural performances, and sustainable farming practices. These expressions of gratitude reflect the deep connection and appreciation we have for the abundance of food and the importance of sustainable agriculture in our lives.

Grammar Il
Rewrite the following sentences choosing the correct alternative from brackets.
a.Sujita asked her mother ……….. (when her father would come home, when will her father come home, when might her father come home).
Answer👉 Sujita asked her mother when her father would come home.

b. She replied that she had never had caviar when I said to her, " ……………..caviar?" (Have you ever had, Will you have, Would you have)
Answer👉 She replied that she had never had caviar when I said to her, "Have you ever had caviar?"

c. The salesperson said to him, "What …………….for you?" (I can do, can I do, I could do)
Answer👉 The salesperson asked him, "What can I do for you?"

d. The tourist inquired from me ………………. to Banepa. (whether I belonged, whether I would belong, whether I am belonging)
Answer👉 The tourist inquired from me whether I belonged to Banepa.

e. The little girl asked us what time ……………… come back. (were we supposed, we were supposed, we had been supposed)
Answer👉 The little girl asked us what time we were supposed to come back.

f. The head teacher asked her ………………….. the exam form the week before. (whether she had filled out, whether she fills out, whether had she filled out)
Answer👉 The head teacher asked her whether she had filled out the exam form the week before.

g. Renuka asked me …………….. her. (if I have called, if I had called, if had I called)
Answer👉 Renuka asked me if I had called her.

B. NIhar Chaudhary interviewed her Social Studies teacher last week. Here is the report prepared by her after the interview. Read it carefully and list out direct questions asked by Nihar.
Direct questions asked by Nihar:
a. Can you tell me about the Newari tradition known as Ihi?
b. Why is the ceremony of Ihi performed?
c. Who is Suvarna Kumar?
d. Why was the Ihi tradition started?
e. What age group of girls are married during the Ihi ceremony?
f. Why is it known as Bel Bibaha?
g. Why was Bel chosen as a witness during the ceremony?
h. How long does the ritual of Ihi go on for?
i. What are the dietary restrictions during the ceremony?

Writing II
A. Write a news story using the following clues.
Vitamin A Capsules Given to Children
health assistants give Vitamin A Capsules, October 19-20
children from six months to five years
deworming tablets to children between 1-5 years
announced by the Department of Health Services
Vitamin A programme continues since 2050 BS and deworming
capsules since 2056 BS

Title: Health Department Distributes Vitamin A Capsules and Deworming Tablets to Children

Date: October 19, 20XX

The Department of Health Services has launched a nationwide campaign to provide Vitamin A capsules and deworming tablets to children between the ages of six months and five years. The distribution of these essential supplements took place on October 19 and 20, as announced by the department.

Since 2050 BS, the Vitamin A program has been running successfully, and since 2056 BS, the distribution of deworming tablets has been a part of the initiative. These supplements are crucial for children's health, supporting their growth, immunity, and overall well-being.

Health assistants were deployed across the country to administer the Vitamin A capsules and deworming tablets. Local health centers, schools, and communities served as distribution points to ensure easy access for families.

The campaign aimed to reach every eligible child, regardless of their location, with the necessary supplements. By providing Vitamin A capsules, the Department of Health Services seeks to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, promote good vision, and boost the immune system of children.

Simultaneously, the distribution of deworming tablets targeted children between one and five years old. These tablets play a vital role in eliminating parasitic infections and improving children's overall health.

Parents and guardians were encouraged to bring their children to the designated distribution centers to receive the supplements. Health authorities stressed the importance of following the prescribed dosage instructions and maintaining proper hygiene practices to maximize the benefits of the program.

The Department of Health Services is committed to improving the health and well-being of children nationwide. By implementing these programs, they aim to reduce child morbidity and mortality rates, ensuring a healthier future for the younger generation.

Project work
Prepare a short questionnaire to gather information about various local festivals celebrated by your friends. Collect the information from your friends. Then make a brief report and present it to the class.

Questionnaire: Local Festivals

  1. Name:
  2. Age:
  3. Which local festival(s) do you celebrate in your community?
  4. How long has the festival been celebrated in your community?
  5. What is the significance or history behind the festival?
  6. What are the main activities or traditions associated with the festival?
  7. How do people prepare for and decorate during the festival?
  8. Are there any special foods or delicacies associated with the festival?
  9. Do people dress in traditional attire during the festival? If yes, please describe.
  10. Are there any religious or cultural rituals performed during the festival? If yes, please explain.
  11. How do people come together and celebrate during the festival?
  12. Are there any unique customs or practices specific to your community during the festival?
  13. What do you personally enjoy the most about the festival?
  14. Have you noticed any changes or modifications in how the festival is celebrated compared to the past?
  15. Do you think the festival has a positive impact on the community? If yes, please elaborate.

Report: Local Festivals in Our Community

Introduction: In order to gather information about the various local festivals celebrated by my friends, I conducted a survey using a questionnaire. The objective was to learn about the festivals, their significance, associated traditions, and their impact on the community. The responses were collected from a group of friends representing diverse backgrounds within our community.


  1. Festivals Celebrated:

    • Festival A
    • Festival B
    • Festival C
  2. Duration:

    • Festival A: This festival has been celebrated in our community for over 50 years.
    • Festival B: This festival has a history of more than 100 years in our community.
    • Festival C: This is a relatively new festival, celebrated for the past 10 years in our community.
  3. Significance and History:

    • Festival A: It marks the harvest season and is celebrated to express gratitude for a bountiful harvest.
    • Festival B: It has religious roots and commemorates a significant event in our community's history.
    • Festival C: It is a cultural festival promoting unity and showcasing local art and music.
  4. Activities and Traditions:

    • Festival A: Activities include traditional dances, music performances, and agricultural exhibitions.
    • Festival B: The festival involves elaborate religious processions, prayers, and communal feasting.
    • Festival C: It features street parades, cultural shows, and various traditional games and competitions.
  5. Preparation and Decorations:

    • Festival A: People decorate their houses with colorful banners and floral arrangements.
    • Festival B: Temples and public spaces are adorned with vibrant decorations and intricate artworks.
    • Festival C: Streets and venues are decorated with vibrant flags, lights, and traditional artworks.
  6. Special Foods and Delicacies:

    • Festival A: Traditional dishes made from freshly harvested crops are prepared and shared.
    • Festival B: Special sweets and savories are prepared and distributed as part of the festivities.
    • Festival C: Local delicacies and street food stalls offer a variety of traditional snacks and treats.
  7. Traditional Attire:

    • Festival A: People dress in traditional costumes representing their respective ethnic backgrounds.
    • Festival B: Participants wear traditional religious attire during the processions and ceremonies.
    • Festival C: There is no specific dress code, but some choose to wear traditional garments.
  8. Religious and Cultural Rituals:

    • Festival A: A special prayer ceremony is conducted to seek blessings for a prosperous year ahead.
    • Festival B: Rituals include sacred chants, hymns, and offerings to the deity associated with the festival.
    • Festival C: Cultural rituals such as traditional dances

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