Class 10 English Guide 2080 : Unit - 6 Custom and Culture Guide

Book Soluction Nepal

 Class 10 English Guide
Unit - 6
Custom and Culture Guide

Look at the pictures and talk about them.
Answer - 
The given pictures show different rites, customs, and rituals practiced by people. The first picture shows a tongue piercing or Jibro Chhedne Jatra. This unique festival of tongue-piercing is a major highlight in the Biska Jatra celebration in Bode, Bhaktapur. Likewise, the second picture shows the Buddhist monks chanting sacred texts together. The monks (lamas) chant the verses on diverse occasions, such as annual festivals, and agrarian life cycle healing rituals, for general well-being, and to attain Buddhahood. In a similar vein, the third picture shows the tradition of bullfighting. This Spanish tradition is a performance in which a bullfighter faces a bull according to a set of rules and guidelines. The fourth picture depicts the Japanese tea ceremony. It is preparing, serving, and drinking tea in a ritualistic and ceremonial way where it is used to promote well-being, mindfulness, and harmony. The purpose is to create a bond between the host and guest and gain inner peace. It is rooted in the principles of Zen Buddhism.

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Reading I
Answer these questions.
a. Describe death rituals in your culture.
Answer - When a person dies in my culture, the dead body is taken to the bar a river (usually confluence), and cremated there with the help of formin members, relatives, and neighbors. After the cremation, there is the practice of a mourning period, which typically lasts for 11 to 13 This period serves as a time to grieve, honor the deceased memorialize them, and support their family and friends.

b. Why do you think it is important?
Answer - I think the death ritual is important because it reflects the culture and tradition of a particular society. It also honors the life as well as the death of a human being. The death ritual also provides support and sympathy to the family members of the deceased during their difficult time. 

Class 10 English Guide Unit - 6 Custom and Culture Guide

Sky Burials

short Summary
To put it bluntly, a dead body is chopped up into pieces and fed to waiting vultures.

Then I turned and saw about 100 vultures sitting on the hill, waiting and then, what looked like a body bag on the stone slab.

The first time I'd seen a dead English 9 67 body when I was 12 and it had a profound effect on me.

The Rogyapa, body breaker, stormed up the side of mountain.

With a butcher knife in hand, he wasted no time in carving up the body.

The body breaker gave the signal and the Tibetans holding the birds back let them through.

Then the body breaker gathered up the human bones and began to pulverise them with a mallet.

It is considered a bad omen if vultures don't eat the body or even if small bits are left.

Tibetans see the vultures as Dakinis, like angels who take soul into the heavens to await reincarnation and the next life.

A. Choose the words from the box that match the given meanings from a - h.
a. ............ very great
Answer - profound

b. ............ a state of great activity and strong emotion
Answer - frenzy

c. ............ very unpleasant and filling with horror
Answer - gruesome

d. ............ not allowed
Answer - forbidden

e. ............ a sign of what is going to happen in the future
Answer - omen

f. ............ very strong attraction
Answer - fascination

g. ............ involved in something with whole attention
Answer - engrossed

h. ............ to make something into a fine powder
Answer - pulverize

B. Write True for true statements and False for false ones.
a. Foreign visitors are welcome to see Sky Burial rituals.
Answer -  False

b. The visitors are not allowed to take photos of the rituals.
Answer - True

c. The vultures took more than fifteen minutes to finish the entire corpse.
Answer -  False

d. The Tibetans perceive the body as a vessel for the soul.
Answer - True

e. The youngest son of the writer was busy with his toys.
Answer -  False

f. The author visited the burial sites with his wife and three children.
Answer - True

C. Answer the following questions.
a. Why did the author visit a traditional Tibetan Buddhist monastery?
Answer -  The author visited a traditional Tibetan Buddhist monastery to view the traditional Tibetan culture of farewelling dead bodies. 

b. What did the author see on the hill?
Answer -  The author saw about 100 vultures waiting for the dead body to be chopped on the hillside.

c. Why did the author give the iPad to his youngest son?
Answer -  The author gave the iPad to his youngest son so that he would be busy playing games and would not be able to know the moment of farewelling the dead bodies.

d. Describe the appearance of a Rogyapa, the body breaker.
Answer -  Rogyapa, the body breaker was wearing a thick, dark scarlet red coloured coat with a black hood.

e. What did the body breaker do after collecting the bones?
Answer -  After collecting the bones, the body breaker started to make a fine powder of bones and mix them with yak butter and barley flour.

f. What is considered to be a bad sign?
Answer -  If the vultures don't eat the body or even if small bits are left, it is considered as a bad omen.

g. Why did the author feel proud?
Answer -  The author felt proud because his children were able to understand 
the ancient Tibetan culture which gives meaning to lives.

C. Research customs from other countries and talk about an interesting one with your friends.
Answer - La Tomatina is a food fight festival held on the last Wednesday of August each year in the town of Buñol (history) near Valencia in Spain. Thousands of people make their way from all corners of the world to fight in this 'World's Biggest Food Fight' where more than one hundred metric tons of over-ripe tomatoes are thrown in the streets. 
The tomato fight has been a strong tradition in Bunol since 1944 or 1945. No one is completely certain how this event originated. Possible theories on how the Tomatina began to include a local food fight among friends. Another popular theory is that disgruntled townspeople attacked city councilmen with tomatoes during a town celebration. Whatever happened to begin the tradition, it was enjoyed so much that it was repeated the next year, and the year after that, and so on. The holiday was banned during the Spanish State period under Francisco Franco for having no religious significance but returned in the 1970s after his demise. 

Grammar I
A. Match the questions in column A with the answers in column B.
Column A                                               Column B
a. Are you ready?------------------------- v. Yes, nearly.
b. Can I carry something for you?-----  iv. No, it's OK. It's not that heavy.
c. May I use your phone?---------------- ii. Yes, of course.
d. Has anyone seen my bag?------------  i. Yes, it's on the chair.
e. Would you like to come to a party?-- iii. Yes, I'd love to.

B. How do you ask questions in these situations?
a. You want to know if it is raining.
Answer - Could you open the window and tell me if it is raining?

b. You want to know if Harish plays football.
Answer - Harish also plays football! I was totally unknown of it. Do you know? 

c. You want to know if the bus is on time.
Answer - Hello! Could you tell me whether the bus arrives on time?

d. You want to know if your friend, Ramesh went to the market yesterday.
Answer - Do you know if Ramesh had been to the market yesterday?

e. You want to know if it is Tuesday today.
Answer - Could you tell me if it is Tuesday today?

f. You want to know if your teacher opened your letter.
Answer - Did you see the teacher opening my letter yesterday?

g. You want to know if your brother has gone to sleep.
Answer - Mummy, has the brother gone to sleep?

h. You want to know if there will be a food party.
Answer - Excuse me. Could you tell me if there will be a food party today?

C. Circle the correct answer.
a. Are you busy today?
i. Yes, busy. ii. Yes, I am.
Answer -  ii. Yes, I am.

b. Is it too hot in here for you?
i. No, it isn't. ii. No, I'm fine, thanks.
Answer - i. No, it isn't.

c. Tell me, did you steal my money?
i. No. I won't ii. No, I didn't steal your money.
Answer - ii. No, I didn't steal your money.

d. Can I carry your bags?
i. No, you can't. ii. It's all right, thanks.
Answer - ii. No, I didn't steal your money.

D. Write yes/no questions for these statements.
a. The family has got three mobile phones.
Answer -  Has the family got three mobile phones?

b. Januka works at the supermarket.
Answer - Does Januka work at the supermarket?

c. Anita is learning English.
Answer - Is Anita learning English?

d. The meeting will be held next Tuesday.
Answer - Will the meeting be held next Tuesday?

e. Tanka switched off the computer.
Answer - Did Tanka switch off the computer?

f. He went to the cinema yesterday.
Answer -  Did he go to the cinema yesterday?

g. Everyone is ready.
Answer - Is everyone ready?

h. It is raining outside.
Answer - Is it raining outside?

i. Vicky's lost her credit card.
Answer -  Has Vicky lost her credit card?

j. She'd done the work on time.
Answer - Had she done the work on time?

Writing I
Write short essay about ‘Our Culture Our Pride’.
Answer - 
Culture is the most significant identity of human beings. So, knowing own culture is very much important. In this lesson today, you will learn how to write an essay on the popular phrase: Our Culture Our Identity.

Culture plays an important role in our lives. Every person is unique and different from the other. It is mainly because of their culture. People belong to several nations and communities. So their language changes, their dresses are different, their habits also do not match with each other. All of these happen because we belong to several cultures.

These values are different from one another. Every country has its own culture. It has its own values and morals. We see different habits, people, their practices, festivals, foods, clothes, and language. All of these happen because of culture. Our behaviour and manners are also important. It shows how beautiful our culture is. 

We are taught about our culture from our childhood. Parents always teach their children about the cultures of their country. Even a small society has a separate rule. Culture comes from our family. If we are well behaved, then people praise our family background. Our grandparents also give us lessons on our culture. They are old and wise.

They know a lot about the culture of the nation. Our environment plays an important role in building us as well. If we have a bad surrounding, then it affects us. We do not learn good manners, we become rough, and also go the wrong way. It becomes very difficult for us to adjust if our culture is not good. So culture creates good and strong personalities. 

Reading II
Answer these questions.
a. Is there any unique custom in your community? What is it?
Answer - I am Ram Nepali from Kirtipur. Yes, there is a unique custom in our community. It is called 'Ihi' or 'Bel Bibaha'

b. Why is it unique?
Answer - Thi or bel Bibaha' is practiced among the people of Newar culture only. In this ceremony, pre-adolescent girls are married symbolically to a bel fruit (wood apple). The wild fruit is considered a symbol of the Lord Vishnu.

Surprising Customs

Short Summary
Humans love doing this so much that the world has been enriched with thousands of different cultures since the dawn of civilization.

No doubt, one important aspect of just about any given culture is its code of etiquette and a sense of identity.

Pointing with lips While gestures of the hand are often subject to customary variation across cultures, few can claim this wonder extends to expressions of the mouth.

Tipping Another odd custom associated with the United States is its tipping culture.

Unlike many other countries that don't tip at all or who only tip in small English 9 73 amounts when the food was particularly good, tipping is rather mandatory at most restaurants in the US In fact, it is expected that patrons leave between 10-20 percent of the bill in tips.

Further, there are rules for tipping bartenders, delivery people and other service personnel.

While some criticise this practice as irrational, there's no doubt that tipping culture in the US gives an incentive for waiters and waitresses to provide better service.

Slurping Most societies around the world have rules about table etiquette.

For western cultures, noisily consuming food is considered rude.

A. Find the words from the text that match the following meanings.
a. ................... a natural desire
Answer - propensive

b. ................ the rules of correct or polite behaviour in society
Answer - etiquette

c. ................... people who work in a bar, serving drinks
Answer - bartenders

d. ................... to become twisted
Answer - twirling

B. Write True for true and False for false statements.
a. In Nicaragua, people prefer to point with their thumb.
Answer - False

b. Tipping is compulsory at most restaurants in the US.
Answer - True

c. Contorting is less noiser than slurping.
Answer - True

d. People from the West take noodles by twisting them on a spoon.
Answer - True

e. The Bini and the Kalabari are ethnic groups of Nigeria.
Answer - True

C. Answer the following questions.
a. What makes a group of people different from others?
Answer - Our propensity to develop customs and traditions around. everything from beauty rituals to death customs makes a group of people different from others.

b. What is the unique tradition of Nicaragua?
Answer - The unique tradition of Nicaragua is that people point their lips more commonly instead of thumb or index fingers.

c. What is a positive aspect of tipping culture?
Answer - The tipping system provides incentives for waiters which helps to provide better service in a different way.

d. Why do Japanese make slurping sounds while eating noodles?
Answer - Japanese make slurping sounds while eating because it shows that they are really enjoying the food.

e. How do Yoruba people greet their elders?
Answer - Yoruba people greet their elders by dropping their knees down.

D. Which of the above customs did you find more interesting? Share it with your friends.
Answer - From the above given different customs, I found the customs of the people of Nicaragua the most unique. In this custom, Nicaraguan people point their lips more commonly instead of their thumb or index fingers. I find this culture unique because if we perform such an activity here in Nepal, people will regard us unmannered, uncivilized or even lunatic.

Grammar II
A. Choose the following sentences in indirect speech from the list to match with the sentences in direct speech in the table below.
only ANswer

B. Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
a. Rahul said to me, “Did you watch the cricket match on TV last night?”
Answer - Rahul asked me if I had watched the cricket match on TV the previous night.

b. “Are you coming home with me?” he said.
Answer - He asked me if I was coming with him

c. “Do you really come from India?” said the prince.
Answer - The prince asked him if I really came from India.

d. “Have you anything to say?” said the judge finally.
Answer - The judge finally asked if he had anything to say.

e. She said to me, “Is he at home?”
Answer - She asked me if he was at home

f. Usha says, “Can you solve the problem?”
Answer - Usha asks me if I can solve the problem.

g. Badri said to Asmita, “Will you visit me in Australia?”
Answer - Badri asked Asmita if she would visit him in Australia.

h. Radhika said to Rebecca, “Did you hear the noise?”
Answer - Radhika asked Rebecca whether she had heard the noise.

i. He said, “Have you seen my hat?”
Answer - He asked me whether I had seen his hat.

j. He said to me, “Does he come or not?”
Answer - He asked me if he came or not. Rohan said to me,

k. Rohan said to me, “Did you spill the milk on the floor?”
Answer - 
Rohan asked me if I had spilled the milk on the floor. 

l. The pilot said to the air hostess, “Have the passengers fastened
their seatbelts?”
Answer - 
The pilot reminded the air hostess if the passengers had fastened their seatbelts.

C. Imagine that you met a friend after two years. He or she asked you the following questions. Reply to them.
Do yourself in class room

Writing II
You have learned about some unusual and interesting customs and cultures of the world. Nepal is also rich in its unique customs and cultures. Write an essay on any one of the unique customs using the given outlines.
Answer -
Nepal's Unique Customs Nepal, a beautifully intricate garden of over a hundred different ethnic groups, also naturally has countless numbers of unique customs and cultures. The list of customs and traditions in Nepal is so long and diverse that one could write a whole book about it. Some interesting and unique customs in Nepal related to major life events such as birth adolescence, marriage, old age, and death are presented below in bring.

Project work
The picture shows the elements of a culture. Choose a culture, design a imilar picture and explain it to the class.
Answer - 
Elements of a Culture Elements of culture are those components that form a culture. They are the inseparable parts of culture. The major elements of a culture are presented below in brief: Symbols A symbol is a mark, character, or sign which is used to represent Something. Every culture has some symbols associated with it. Although different cultures may have some symbols in common, their meaning may or may not be similar to each other. For example, in America nodding your head up and down is a sign of agreement, and shaking your head from side to side implies .... to be continues...
Do your self

Class 9 English Guide - Click any unit and view class 9 English notes

Unit - 1 Travel and Holidays

Unit - 2 Health and Hygiene

Unit - 3 Family, Market and Public Places

Unit - 4 Life and Death

Unit - 5 Ethics, Norms and Values

Unit - 6 Custom and Culture

Unit - 7 Ecology and Environment

Unit - 8 Science and Technology

Unit - 9 Work and Leisure

Unit - 10 The Earth and Space

Unit - 11 Gadgets and Instruments

Unit - 12 People and Places

Unit - 13 Organisation Profile and Authority

Unit - 14 History and Civilisation

Unit - 15 People and Lifestyle

Unit - 16 Games and Sports

Unit - 17 Global Warming and Climate Change

Unit - 18 Transportation and Communication

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