Class 9 English Guide 2080 : Unit - 14 History and Civilization

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 Class 9 English Guide
Unit - 14 
History and Civilisation

Look at the picture and talk about human evolution.
The image provided illustrates the various phases of human development from antiquity to the present. Anatomically, it is thought that Homo heidelbergensis, the ancestor of modern humans, first appeared in Africa around 300,000 years ago. As they migrated out of Africa, they gradually displaced the local populations of archaic humans. All humans have historically lived as nomadic hunters and gatherers. Agriculture and permanent human settlement came into being during the Neolithic Revolution, which started in Southwest Asia around 13,000 years ago (and separately in a few other locations). Forms of governance emerged within and between communities as populations grew larger and denser, and numerous civilizations rose and fell.

Reading I
Look at the following pictures and answer these questions.
a. What is the name of the invention shown in the picture?
Answer - The invention shown in the picture is Sun Stone which is also known as the Aztec Sun Stone. It was a type of Calendar used before the 16th century. 

b. Who was it developed by?
Answer - It was developed by the Aztecs - the Native American people who - lived in northern Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest in the 
early 16th century. 

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The Maya Empire

A. Match the following words from the text with their meanings.
a. drought-----------v. a long period of time when there is little or no rain
b. excel-------------- iii. to be very good at doing something
c. hieroglyph------- ii. a picture representing a word, syllable or sound
d. dominant-------- vii. more important, powerful or easy to notice than other things
e. concentration--- vi. a lot of something in one place
f. invasion---------- i. an instance of a large number of people or things arriving somewhere
g. excavation------iv. digging ground to look for old buried buildings or objects

B. Find the words in the text and fill in the crossword puzzle.
Answer - 
2. people who follow each other in time or order - succession
4. a loss of power, prosperity or status - downfall
5. complete with regard to every detail - thorough
6. a union or association formed for mutual benefit - alliance

1. complete disorder and confusion - chaos
3. very complicated and detailed - elaborate
7. to use all of something so that there is none left - exhaust

C. Choose the correct answer.
a. When did the Maya Civilisation reach its height?
i. sixth century AD 

b. Why were the Mayas unlikely to be invaded by the Mesoamericans?
ii. They were concentrated in a particular area.

c. What has fascinated researchers about the Mayas from the southern lowlands?
i. the stone cities ii. the cultural differences

d. Which period of the Maya Civilisation is considered the golden age?
i. The Medieval Period 

e. Whom did the Mayas consider their god?
ii. the king 

f. According to scholars, which of the following is NOT the cause of Maya downfall?
iii. foreign invasion

D. Match the paragraph numbers with respective information.
Answer - 
a. I-----iii. achievement by the Maya civilisation in different sectors
b. II----iv. places where the Mayas lived
c. III---v. categories of the places where the Mayans lived
d. IV---i. occupation of the earliest Maya society
e. V---- ii. number of people in the Maya civilisation
f. VI--- vi. spirituality of the Mayan people
g. VII-- viii. time when the downfall of the Maya Civilisation started
h. VIII- vi. spirituality of the Mayan people

E. Why is the study of history important to us? Prepare a mindmap of your thoughts and discuss with your friends.
Answer - 
History is the study of past events, particularly those that pertain to a specific location or topic that is human-related. History is very important to us because it teaches us about past human life, our ancestors and their activities, our traditional cultures, people's way of life, and other things that are related to the past. We can observe and comprehend how people and societies behaved in the past by studying history. For instance, by considering the past, we can assess war even when a country is at peace. Additionally, we can use this knowledge and experience to not only improve upon our flaws and past errors.

Grammar I
A. Compare what Samita said in the past and what she says now.
Now, make sentences using used to/didn't use to/never used to as in the example.
Answer - 
1. Samita didn't use to drink tea but now she likes tea. 
2. Samita used to play the piano but now she hasn't played it for years. 
3. Samita used to be very lazy but now she works very hard. 
4. Samita didn't use to like cheese but now she eats a lot of cheese. 
5. Samita used to have a dog but it died two years ago.
 6. Samita used to work as a hotel receptionist but now she works in a bookshop. 
7. Samita used to have a lot of friends but now she doesn't know many people. 
8. Samita never used to read newspapers now she reads them daily.

B. Rewrite the following sentences using used to or didn't use to.
a. I lived with my parents.
Answer  - I used to live with my parents.

b. Did you swim in the river every summer?
Answer  - Did you use to swim every summer?

c. He never smoked.
Answer  - He didn't use to smoke.

d. I played tennis at school.
Answer  - I used to play tennis at school

e. Villagers walked for hours to reach the nearest health post.
Answer  - Villagers used to walk for hours to reach the nearest health post.

f. There was a dense forest around the village.
Answer  - There used to be dense forest around the village

g. What did you do in your childhood?
Answer  - What did you use to do in your childhood?

h. I didn't write stories.
Answer  - I didn't use to write stories

i. Did people travel by airplanes?
Answer  - Did people use to travel by airplane?

j. Where did you go to deposit your money?
Answer  - Where did you use to go to deposit your money?

Writing I
A. Read the following story carefully. Then give it a suitable title.
Answer - The best title for the given story would be "Tit for Tat".

B. Develop readable stories based on the given outlines.
Answer -
Once upon a time, there was a king who used to live with his people in his kingdom very happy. However, the powerful enemies attacked the kingdom one day, and the king was defeated. The king with his army ran away from the kingdom and hid in the nearby forest. After some months, they reunited, built their strong army and attacked their enemies in order to chase them away from their |kingdom. Unfortunately, they were again defeated. And, this happened not only one or two times but for six-six times. At the sixth time, the enemies chased the king out of the nearby forest too. The king saved his life by hiding himself inside a cave in the forest far away. Now, the king had no hope of getting his kingdom back and he was sad and depressed. When the king was inside the cave, he saw a spider who was trying to climb the wall. The king carefully watched the spider climbing the wall. The spider tried for the sixth time but failed. Only on the seventh time, the spider was successful to climb the wall. Watching this, the king got himself motivated. He thought to himself, "If an insect like a spider doesn't lose its hope and tries again and again to achieve success, then why human like me should lose hope so early." Then, the king organized his army, trained and motivated them well and attacked his enemies, and finally, he was able to defeat his armies and regain his kingdom in the seventh attempt. 
Moral: Don't lose hope and try and try again until you succeed.

Answer -

Once upon a time, three were two boys in a village nearby a forest. They were very good friends until one day, the two friends Went to the jungle in order to collect some firewood. While they were walking in the forest side, a bear suddenly appeared in front of them. And unfortunately, the bear came toward them. Both of the friends were very much afraid of the bear. And, in order to save the life, one of the friends, climbed up a tree quickly while the other couldn't climb up the tree. The friend who couldn't climb up the tree was helpless and he was almost losing all the hope of being alive. Then suddenly, an ideal struck his mind and he lay down on the ground as if he was dead The bear came near and smelt his limbs. Then, the bear went away. The friend who had climbed up the tree came down and asked his |friend what the bear told him. The friend who was on the ground calmly replied that the bear told him to be aware of friends who |ran away in danger.. 
Moral: Be aware of friends who run away in danger. 

Reading II
Look at the pictures and answer the following questions.
a. What are these currencies?
Answer - The first one is a Nepali 1000 rupees note, the second one is a Nepali 2 rupees dollar and 3rd one is an American 100 dollar note.

b. What would happen if we didn't have money?
Answer - If we didn't have money, then we wouldn't be able to buy and sell anything because in order to buy and sell everything, we need money.

The History of Money

A. Find the words from the text above that have the following meanings.
a. r......... the period during which a king, queen, emperor, etc. rules
Answer - reign

b. p......... to happen before something
Answer - precede

c. r......... to control something by means of rules
Answer - regulate

d. c......... simply and without much skill or attention to detail
Answer - crudely

e. f......... to form a border around something
Answer - fringe

f. l......... something that somebody has done successfully
Answer - legacy

g. f......... an official order given by somebody in authority
Answer - fiat

h. s......... free to govern itself; completely independent
Answer - sovereign

i. i......... belonging naturally; essential
Answer - intrinsic

Complete the table below with the correct information about the development of money.
Answer - 
Timeline                           Events
1200 BCE------------------cowrie shells used as money
2000 BCE-----------------metal coins usedas money
6th century BCE---------leather and animal hide (skin) as currency
997–1022 CE-------------- paper currency made from mulberry trees 
1821 CE--------------------introduced gold standard
21st century---------------digital payment and virtual currency (bitcoin)

C. Answer the following questions.
a. What did people use to make a trade before the invention of money?
Answer - People used to exchange things with animals and crops to make a trade before the invention of money.

b. How were temples used as banks in the past?
Answer - Temples were used in order to store grain and other valuables used in trade in the past.

c. What was the benefit of using cowrie shells as money?
Answer - The benefit of using cowrie shells as money is they were similar in size, small and durable. 

d. Describe the coins invented by Turkey.
Answer - The coins invented by Turkey were the first regulated coins made of electrum, a natural mixture of gold and silver.

e. Why did the leaders in international finance introduce the gold standard in currency?
Answer - The leaders in international finance introduced the gold standard in currency in order to prevent governments from issuing currency excessively.

f. What form of money is being used in the 21st century?
Answer - The forms of money that are being used in the 21st century are digital money and virtual currency bitcoin.

D. How might people trade in the next 20 years? What form of money might be used? Talk to your friends.
Answer - The evolution of money has been drastic. From the barter system to paper money, human civilization has seen different changes in terms of the form of money. : The 21st century has given rise to two novel forms of currency: mobile payments and virtual currency. Virtual currency seems to be an upcoming form of money in the world. Cryptocurrencies are the form of money that might be the form of money which are gradually getting popularity. In my view, people might trade solely with online or virtual payment in the next twenty years.

Grammar II
B. Use simple past, past continuous or past perfect forms of the verbs in the brackets to complete the following sentences.
a. Mr. Singh .......... (wait) for me when I reached the station.
Answer - was waiting

b. A: What ............... (do) this time yesterday?
Answer - were you doing

B: I was reading a novel.
c. A: .............. (go) out last night?
Answer - Did you go

B: No, I was too busy to go out.
d. A: Was Sapana at the party?
B: Yes, she .......... (dance) with Ravi.
Answer - was dancing

e. A: What .......... (do) when the earthquake occurred?
Answer - were you doing

B: I was cooking meal.
f. He ........... (fall) off the wall when Sanam pushed him.
Answer - fell

g. I .......... (be) really in a difficult situation when I lost the job.
Answer - had been

h. When I was young, I .............. (want) to become a doctor.
Answer - wanted to

i. I ................ (do) my homework when the telephone rang.
Answer - was ding

j. When I last saw Kiran, he ............ (work) in his garden.
Answer - was working

C. Find the mistakes in the story below and correct the verb forms throughout.
Answer - 
This happened to me when I was in India. I used to go to my office by train. On this particular evening. I hurry to my station but when I 
ched there the train had already gone. I bought a newspaper and a packet of biscuits and sot on the bench. While I was reading a man came and sot down opposite me. There was nothing special about him, ascept that he was very tall. I was still reading when my eyes catch a very strange sight. The man reached over the table, open my pack of biscuits, took one, dip it into his coffee and popped it into his mouth I couldn't beloved my eyes. But I didn't want to make a fuss, so I ignored it. I just took a biscuit myself and went back to the newspaper. While I was pretending to be very interested in the news, the man took a second biscuit. After a couple of minutes, I casually put a biscuit in my mouth and decided to leave. I was ready to go when the man stood up and hurriedly leave, I folded my newspaper and stood up. And there on the table, where my newspaper had been was my pack of biscuits.

Writing II
Do students need to learn history? Why? Write an essay on The Importance of History'
Answer - The Importance of History History refers to the study of past events and especially those to a particular place or subject related to human beings. History is one of the most significant and respected disciplines. This subject guides us to learn about our past. There are lots of benefits to studying History. The study of history provides us with knowledge about human life in the past, our ancestors and their activities, our traditional cultures, people's lifestyle, their way of practice, and so on related to the past. Studying history allows us to observe and understand how people and societies behaved in the past. For example, we are able to evaluate war, even when al nation is at peace, by looking back at previous events. History develops in us a deep understanding of the world along with the changes it has undergone with time. If we study History, we understand different aspects of life. We come to know what pillars our culture was built| only by studying History subject. Finding who we are and what we can do for the world is a huge part of our childhood question. Thus, allowing hildren to study History is one way to help them know something about ancestors and get inspired by their valours and good deeds. ere is a highly famous quote by George Santayana that says, "those who emember the past are condemned to repeat it" and I agree with this The past is always filled with warning signs and invaluable lessons. s is the major reason why History is a respected academic pursuit that can't remember the past for Grade challenges us. Not only this, but llistory also helps us to understand pro day issues by giving similar examples from the past, II We want to kn why or how something happened in any lield, we need to look into i origins. History helps us become better-informed citizens in many aspects of life, Bul getting knowledge of History, we can change our old belief systems, which are impractical at the present time and adapt those which are fruitful to and our society. By having knowledge of history, we can not only know the weaknesses and mistakes of our past but also use this knowledge and experience in order to make our future better. Therefore, the study of histor is very important to us.

Project work
Do yourself......

Class 9 English Guide - Click any unit and view class 9 English notes

Unit - 1 Travel and Holidays

Unit - 2 Health and Hygiene

Unit - 3 Family, Market and Public Places

Unit - 4 Life and Death

Unit - 5 Ethics, Norms and Values

Unit - 6 Custom and Culture

Unit - 7 Ecology and Environment

Unit - 8 Science and Technology

Unit - 9 Work and Leisure

Unit - 10 The Earth and Space

Unit - 11 Gadgets and Instruments

Unit - 12 People and Places

Unit - 13 Organisation Profile and Authority

Unit - 14 History and Civilisation

Unit - 15 People and Lifestyle

Unit - 16 Games and Sports

Unit - 17 Global Warming and Climate Change

Unit - 18 Transportation and Communication

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