Class 9 English Guide 2080 : Unit - 5 Ethics, Norms and Values Guide

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 Class 9 English Guide
Unit - 5
Ethics, Norms and Values Guide

Look at the pictures and talk to your friend about their professional ethics, norms and values.
Answer -
Professional ethics, norms, and values are principles that govern the behavior of a person or group in a business environment. They provide rules on how a person should act towards other people and institutions in such an environment. In the first picture, a doctor is shown. A doctor shall safeguard the interests, integrity, and privacy of individual patients. The patients shall be treated with compassion, care, and respect. Likewise, we can see a singer in the second picture. Being a professional singer means delivering the music, being respectful, punctual, and entertaining as well as awarding the people of the society. In a similar vein, a professional pilot is shown in the third picture. The professional pilot is committed to his duty of helping passengers to reach their destination quickly and safely. The last picture is of a teacher and a professional teacher is always committed to enlightening the students with knowledge, skills, ideas, and awareness that help in their 
as well as societal development.

Reading I
Look at the picture and answer the questions.
a. What does it say?
Answer - the picture says that the person is feeling sorry and he wants to apologize for his mistake.

b. How do you apologize? Talk to your friends.
Answer - We often apologize by addressing the mistakes that we have committed and asking for forgiveness.

Complete Class 9 English Guide Android application

Why “I’m Sorry” Doesn’t Always Translate

Short Summary
Even after decades of cooperation in business and politics, America and Japan still trip over a seemingly simple concept: the apology.
Ethics, Norms and Values English 9 53 effusive apologies in 2010, after widespread reports of malfunctioning Prius accelerators.
In India, other researchers have noted, apologies are far less common than in Japan.Our own work found that a core issue is differing perceptions of culpability: Americans see an apology as an admission of wrongdoing, whereas Japanese see it as an expression of eagerness to repair a damaged relationship, with no culpability necessarily implied.
In an initial survey of US and Japanese undergraduates, the US students were more likely to say that an apology directly implied guilt.
In a second study, we looked at the utility of apologies for repairing trust.
Thus it makes sense that in the US an apology is taken to mean "I am the one who is responsible." It also stands to reason 54 English 9 that in Japan which, like many other East Asian countries, has a more group-oriented culture; apologies are heard as "It is unfortunate that this happened." Researchers who've compared apologies in America and China have found a similar pattern: US apologies serve to establish personal responsibility, while Chinese ones focus on the larger consequences of the transgression.

Only with a deep understanding of such differences, the executives can make effective use of the apology as a tool for facilitating negotiations, resolving conflicts, and repairing trust. Misunderstandings over apologies are just one aspect of a broad semantic disconnect between East and West that's too often ignored in the rush to globalization.

A. Find the words/phrases from the text for the following meanings. The first letter has been given.
a. t.............. to have difficulty saying something clearly or correctly
Answer - trip over

b. e............ showing too much emotion
Answer - effusive

c. b............ became annoyed or offended
Answer - bristled

d. i............ accustomed to doing something
Answer - inured

e. c........... the fact of being responsible.
Answer - culpability

f. a........ ... a statement saying that you strongly believe something to be true
Answer - assertion

g. a.......... to say or believe that something is the result of a particular thing
Answer - attribute

h. s......... connected with the meaning of words and sentences
Answer - semantic

i. n......... a very slight difference in meaning
Answer - nuance


Class 9 English Guide Unit - 5 Ethics, Norms and Values Guide

B. Match the first halves in column A with their endings in column B to
make complete sentences.
Column A                                          Column B
a. Americans didn’t show-----------iv. sympathy to Akio Toyoda’s effusive apologies.
b. People are accustomed----------iii. to an apology in Hong Kong.
c. Japanese use an apology--------v. to repair their damaged relationship.
d. American participants seemed-i. less interested in a second research.
e. Researchers found---------------ii. similar patterns in East Asiancountries.

C. Answer the following questions.
a. Why did Japan become annoyed with the US submarine commander?
Answer -  Japan became annoyed with the US submarine commander because he didn't immediately apologize after colliding with and sinking a Japanese fishing boat off Hawaii.

b. How do Americans and Japanese perceive an apology?
Answer - Americans perceive apology as an admission of wrongdoing, whereas the Japanese see it as an expression of eagerness to repair a damaged relationship, with no culpability necessarily implied.

c. What, according to the survey, is the average result of an apology in Japanese and American students?
Answer - According to the survey, the average result of an apology in Japanese students is 11.05 apologies per week.

d. What was displayed in a video show?
Answer - In a video show, it was shown that an applicant for an accounting job apologized for having deliberately filed an incorrect tax return for a prior client.

e. Who were the respondents of the second study?
Answer - The respondents of the second study were undergraduates of US 
and Japan.

f. How can the executives apply an apology?
Answer - The executives can apply an apology as a tool for facilitating 
negotiations, resolving conflicts and repairing trust.


D. Have you ever apologized? Why and how?
Answer - 

Yes, I have apologized for a lot of times. The five incidents that I can fairly remember are the following below: 
a. Last week my friend was coming from Chitwan to see me and I 
was supposed to pick him up from the airport at 7 in the evening. But I got caught up in the traffic and reached half an hour late. I apologized by telling him sorry and by taking him out for dinner 
the next evening. 
b. It was the summer of 21 when I failed to remember our marriage 
anniversary. My wife went mad at me and didn't talk to me for days. She finally forgave me when I bought her a fancy necklace 
as an apology. 
c. Last October, my boss asked me to send her the final financial report by month's end. I couldn't deliver the report on time and apologize to her by writing a formal apology mail. Once I forgot to turn off the lights while leaving for home from work. The next day, I apologized to my boss about the incident and 
promised to be extra careful in days to come. ! 
e. This happened while I was in college. There was an in-house 
football competition and we were playing the final against another faculty. We were down by one goal by half-time. In the second half, the referee gave a penalty against us for a hand ball inside the box. I got furious and yelled at the referee. Sometime later, I realized it was poor conduct on my side so I went to the referee and apologized.

Grammar I

A. Read the text and underline the verb forms in the present continuous tense.

Read from your book...

B. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences.

a. Be quiet! The baby ........... (sleep).

Answer - is sleeping

b. It ........... (rain) cats and dogs here in the Monsoon season.

Answer - rains

c. John is busy. He ............. (work) at the moment.

Answer - is working

d. Please keep quiet, I ..................... (listen) to the radio. You know I ................. (listen) to the news in the mornings.

Answer - as listening, listen

e. What time ............. the first bus ................. (leave) for Kathmandu?

Answer - does, leave

f. I usually .................. (not wear) a scarf, but today I .............. (wear) one because it's unusually cold.

Answer - don't wear, am wearing

g. She ............... (travel) to Dhangadhi next weekend.

Answer - will travel

h. Pasang is in the classroom at the moment. He ........ (study) History.

Answer - is studying 

i. These days most people ....(write) emails instead of writing letters.

Answer - write

j. What sort of clothes ............ teenagers ................(wear) nowadays?

Answer - do, wear

k What ............ you ................. (do) tonight? Would you like to come and watch the game?

Answer - are, doing

l. You look worried. What (think) of?

Answer - are, thinking

m. She usually drives a taxi. But today, she is ............. (drive) a lorry.

Answer - driving

n. These kids ............. (not do) what I’ve asked them to do.

Answer - are not doing

Reading II

Do you agree with the following statements? Discuss.

a. Apologising doesn’t always mean you’re wrong and the other person is right.

Answer - Yes, I agree with the statement that apologizing doesn't always mean we are wrong and the other person is right. In general, an apology refers to a regretful acknowledgment of an offense or failure. But it is not always the case. There are incidents when we are not precisely wrong but taking a stand could cause larger damage. In such scenarios, a simple apology can prevent from things going horribly wrong. In addition, for the other person to be right, it is not always necessary that we must be wrong. In fact, right and wrong are just our perceptions of things. And it is quite common for people to have different perceptions.

b. Great people apologize when they realize they have made a mistake.
Answer -  I agree with this statement too. we often see great people apologizing every now and then. In fact, they apologize a lot more than a common person in general. It also reflects their personality. It is an important tool that is required for the well-being of the organization or company. It helps in facilitating negotiations, resolving conflicts, and repairing trust.

A. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B.

Column A                    Column B

a. disrupt-------------- iii. to make it difficult for something to continue in the normal way

b. crewmembers------ v. all the people working on a ship, plane, etc.

c. hinder--------------- iv. to make it difficult for somebody to do something or for something to happen

d. inconvenience------- ii. trouble or problem, especially concerning what you need or would like yourself

e. emerge--------------- i. to come out of a dark, confined, or hidden place

B. Answer the following questions.

a. Who has written the letter?

Answer - Founder and CEO of JetBlue Airways, David Neeleman has written the letter


b. Who is it addressed to?

Answer - It is addressed to the customers of JetBlue Airways. 


c. How long has JetBlue been serving its customers?

Answer - JetBlue has been serving its customers for seven years. 


d. What was the main cause of inconvenience to the passengers?

Answer - The main cause of inconvenience to the passengers was unacceptable delays, flight cancellations, lost baggage, and many more.


e. What sort of service does this company promise?

Answer - The service that the company promises is to make the experience of flying happier and easier for everyone who chooses to fly with JetBlue Airways.


f. What does the JetBlue Airways Customer Bill of Rights contain?

Answer - JetBlue Airways Customer Bill of Rights contains an official commitment on how the company shall handle operational interruptions and details of compensation.

C. Have you ever faced any problems when traveling on holidays or to another village or town? Share it with your friends.

Answer - Yes, I faced some problems while traveling to my village Khotang during the Dashain vacation. I and my family booked bus tickets through an online portal. When we reached the bus station, the person at the ticket counter said there were no bookings in our names. The bookings done online were not valid according to them. Thankfully, they had some extra canceled tickets and we bought them. Later during our journey, there was a landslide that blocked the road. So, we had to wait for a few hours for the excavator to remove the obstacles. After much hardship, we reached our village in 32 hours instead of 20 hours.

Grammar II

A. Use the correct form of the verbs given in the brackets to rewrite this text.

Answer - Sophiya is sitting in the classroom. Her teacher is standing in front of the class and teaching. But, Sophiya is doing something else. She is daydreaming. She is not in the class. She is dancing on a stage in front of hundreds of people. She is wearing a beautiful costume. She is tapping and twirling. She is spinning on one leg. She is kicking her feet. She is leaping and flying through the air. The audience are standing on the floor. They are clapping and shouting “Bravo! Bravo!!”. “Sophiya?” "Sophiya?” her teacher is calling. He is not teaching anymore. “Yes?” Sophia is feeling a bit embarrassed. Her cheeks are getting red. "Are you feeling okay? You are shouting 'Bravo! Bravo! Bravo!' in the class." "Sorry! I am just enjoying the class so much ‘Bravo! Bravo!'.”

B. Complete the sentences with the use of the correct form of any relevant verbs.

a. A: We .......... to the cinema tonight.

Answer - are going

B: .............with us?

Answer - Are you coming

b. A: I ............. on holiday two or three times a year.

Answer - go

B: That's great! And where ......... this year?

Answer - are you going

c. I think it's better to stay. It ............ and we .............. an umbrella.

Answer - is raining, don't have

d. Who is that man? Why ............. at us? What ..............?

Answer - is he staring, does he want, 

e. Tomorrow, I doctor in the morning.

Answer - am going to see

f. Where's John? He .............. to a new song in this room.

Answer - was listening

g. Rita ............ hard all day yesterday but she ............... not........... today.

Answer - putting any effort

h. Nitu ........... reading a story at the moment.

Answer - is

i. The plane ............... the runway now. You are too late.

Answer - is on

j. I told you that I ................. with you anymore. You're simply not a team player.

Answer - don't want to play

Writing II

We all make mistakes in our life. You have also probably made many mistakes in your own life. Remember any mistake that you have recently made. Then, write a letter or an email to the respective person apologizing for the mistake.

Answer - 

Dear sita, I am sorry I took such an offensive tone of voice in speaking with you before your friends. It was not my intention to humiliate you. My own annoyance at another matter clouded my judgment. Please forgive me. I hope this unfortunate misstep will not jeopardize our friendship. You are one of the best friends I have. 



Project work

Collect different ways of apologizing and responding from parents, friends, or newspapers. Display them on chart paper in your class.

Do yourself...


Class 9 English Guide - Click any unit and view class 9 English notes

Unit - 1 Travel and Holidays

Unit - 2 Health and Hygiene

Unit - 3 Family, Market and Public Places

Unit - 4 Life and Death

Unit - 5 Ethics, Norms and Values

Unit - 6 Custom and Culture

Unit - 7 Ecology and Environment

Unit - 8 Science and Technology

Unit - 9 Work and Leisure

Unit - 10 The Earth and Space

Unit - 11 Gadgets and Instruments

Unit - 12 People and Places

Unit - 13 Organisation Profile and Authority

Unit - 14 History and Civilisation

Unit - 15 People and Lifestyle

Unit - 16 Games and Sports

Unit - 17 Global Warming and Climate Change

Unit - 18 Transportation and Communication

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