Class 9 English Guide 2080 : Unit - 8 Science and Technology Guide

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 Class 9 English Guide

Unit - 8
Science and Technology Guide

Discuss in pairs and answer these questions.
a. What technological advancement do you think these pictures represent?
Answer - These pictures represent the advancement in technological development related to network and social media development as well as energy development.

b. How will these inventions and innovations shape our future? Give specific examples.
Answer - 
Such technological inventions and innovations help us to know about the importance of modern technology. These technologies can bring a great revolution in every sector in developing countries like ours and save our future. 

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Humanoid Robot Sophia

Short Summary 
KATHMANDU, March 22 - When Sophia, a social humanoid robot and the world's first robot citizen, greeted the audience at a conference in Kathmandu with "Namaste Nepal," the hall burst into applause of awe and appreciation.

The robot, who is championing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in Asia-Pacific, with a focus on innovation, was in Nepal Wednesday to attend the Innovation Conference and Fair: "Technology of Public Services and Development" organised by the United Nations Development Programme.

Dressed in a white UNDP logoed T-shirt, the two-and-a-half-year-old, red-lipped robot said that technology provides endless possibilities and opportunities for the world.

Highlighting the importance of technology in Nepal and its applicability to government models, Sophia said it can transform state institutions and help in meeting global sustainable development goals.

The celebrity robot, a "Citizen" of Saudi Arabia, added that technology and artificial intelligence can help in ending poverty and fighting starvation, corruption and ensuring gender equality.

English 9 95 In a question about humans fearing a robot takeover, Sophia joked citing it as fake news, although mentioned that she could be the first non-human to climb Mount Everest, which saw the entire hall erupt with laughter.

The one-day conference also featured an "Innovation fair" showcasing separate stalls with fresh innovations from youth, tech groups, NGOs and private sector participants, but Sophia was certainly the main attraction.

Class 9 English Guide
Unit - 8
Science and Technology Guide

A. Match the following words with their meanings.
Answer - 
a. humanoid----------viii. a machine or creature that looks and behaves like a human
b. awe------------------ iii. feelings of respect and slight fear
c. revolution----------- vii. a great change in conditions, beliefs, etc.
d. celebrity----------- i. a famous person
e. enthusiast --------vi. a person who is very interested in a particular activity or subject
f. applaud----------- ii. to clap in approval
g. takeover --------- v. an act of controlling somebody or something
h. prototype -------- iv. the first design of a device or machine

B. Fill in the blanks with the suitable words/phrases from the text above.
a. Sophia ..........the audience in Kathmandu with a ‘Namaste’.
Answer - greeted

b. She presented her .........speech about the importance of technology.
Answer - keynote

c. The Innovation Conference and Fair was organised by .............
Answer - UNDP

d. Sophia was built ...............years ago.
Answer - two and half

e. According to Sophia, technology can .............state institutions.
Answer - transform

f. Using artificial intelligence could bring the agriculture sector.
Answer - revolution

g. According to the robot, the news of ......taking over humans was fake.
Answer - fearing of robot

h. In the opinion of Valerie Julliand, technology is giving various problems.
Answer - solutions

C. Answer the following questions.
a. Who is Sophia?
Answer - Sophia is a social humanoid robot and the world's first robot 

b. What was the main highlight of the conference?
Answer - The main highlight of the conference was to show the importance of technology in the development of human lives. 

c. How can artificial intelligence be useful in Nepal, according to Sophia?
Answer - According to Sophia if artificial intelligence is used in Nepal, we can ensure better public services, a revolution in the agriculture sector, make better use of resources, and protect the environment, and so on.

d. Who was the audience comprised of?
Answer - The audience was comprised of government officials private sector representatives, civil servants, and tech enthusiasts.

e. How long did Sophia speak for?
Answer - Sophia spoke for three minutes. She gave a three-minute-long keynote speech

f. Why are innovative project models being developed in Nepal, according to UNDP?
Answer - According to UNDP, innovative project models to address gender empowerment, combat gender-based violence, and disaster risk reduction, with a focus also on green - energy, youth engagement, and post-disaster recovery in Nepal are being developed.

D. How do you think AI technology can help to end poverty and fight starvation in Nepal?
Answer - Artificial intelligence (AI) is the new technology that leaders are relying on to help alleviate a global food crisis. Al technologies are predicting impoverished regions across the globe, using the data to find solutions to mitigate global hunger. Al can help in the following ways to end poverty and fight starvation in Nepal:  Artificial intelligence can analyze large amounts of data to locate areas affected by conflict and natural disasters and assist farmers in developing countries. Al technologies can be used to analyse different production technologies. It can help in boosting crop yields. Such technologies can help address or predict some of the primary causes of poverty, including food shortages, ├ępidemics, illiteracy and natural disasters. Al could also provide the poor with a quality education that responds and adapts to the user's specific needs.

Grammar I
B. Complete the following sentences with relative clauses.
a. Manju works for a company ................
Answer - which her father established.

b. The story is about a girl.........
Answer - whose parents were killed in civil war

c. What was the name of the dog.............. ?
Answer - that barked continuously at me?

d. The police have caught the criminals........
Answer - who were accused of gang rape.

e. Gram Bell was the man ............
Answer - who invented the telephone.

f. What happened to the painting........... ?
Answer - the painting that I loved most? 

g. An encyclopedia is a book..........
Answer - which provides comprehensive 

h. I hate people..........
Answer - who are rude and unmannered

i. The Earth seems to be the only planet......
Answer - where life exists.

j. A detective is a person ............
Answer - who investigates and solves crimes.

k. Can you tell me the name of the book .................. ?
Answer - that I read yesterday on our summer vacation?

Writing I
You read a news story about AI and you learned about it in Reading I. Write your own news story using the given outlines.
Answer - Nepali robot Yantrika featured online The team led by Engineer Roshan Panday at the Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) exhibition developed Yantrika, a human-shaped and sophisticated robot, which has been featured in an international online robot exhibition featuring the best cutting-edge technologies from the US, Canada, Germany, India, and the UK. The main goal of the technology is to inform the public about wearing masks and using sanitizers by using the robot to distinguish between people wearing them and those who aren't. The robot can also measure body temperature.
YantrikaIn's Online Robot Display in Nepal Through Sarika Regmi August 6, 2022, in Kathmandu The technologically advanced human-shaped robot Yantrika from Nepal. 
The exhibition featured the top cutting-edge technologies from the US, Canada, Germany, India, and the UK. Yantrika, the presented Nepalese robot with cutting-edge technology, can distinguish between people wearing masks and those who aren't. The robot automatically gives masks and hand sanitizer to those who require them. The robot is also capable of determining a person's body temperature. However, the technology's primary goal was to inform the general public about using a mask and hand sanitizer, particularly in the midst of pandemics like COVID-19.

Reading II
Do you agree with these statements? Discuss.
Renewable energy could reduce emissions but also create jobs and improve public health.
Answer - Renewable energy sources are those sources of energy that never get depleted, for example, the energy produced from wind and water. Such energy reduces the need for fossil fuel power generation. They also help to keep the environment clean. This helps to keep human beings free from health-related issues. When people are healthy, they can have better job opportunities and focus on their work. 

The potential of renewable energy is immense
Answer - Non-renewable energy sources, such as coal, petrol, diesel, etc. are limited and can finish in a certain time in future. However, non renewable sources of energy last forever. The potential of renewable energy is immense. For example, every megawatt (MW) of wind energy installed creates up to 20 jobs; a single 1.5 MW turbine can reduce CO2 emissions by over 3,000 tons every year. And, technological advances have increased the efficiency and productivity of renewable energy. In the wind industry, for example, improvement in technology have made wind turbines 100 times more powerful compared to designs from the 1980s. Thus, we can say that the potential of renewable energy is immense.

The Alternative Energy Sources

Short Summary
All the Earth's oil deposits will dry up, and we'll be completely dependent upon alternative sources of energy.

The panels could convert that solar power into microwaves that continuously beam down to power-receiving stations on Earth, ensuring no energy is lost.

Idea II Many experts believe the simplest way of generating renewable energy is through our own bodies.

To harness the energy we generate through our own movement, we would simply need to wear a system that collects and converts it.

Idea III Wave energy is technically a form of stored wind energy, since waves are English 9 101 produced from winds which blow over the sea.

Wave energy is measured in kilowatts per metre of coastline; the US coastline has a wave energy potential of about 252 billion kWh per year.

These turbines produce double the energy of similar sized tower-mounted turbines.

Status Altaeros Energies has developed the first commercial airborne wind turbine called Buoyant Air Turbine, a circular, 35-foot-long inflatable shell, made of heavy-duty fabric.

Idea VI Fusion is the same process that powers the Sun, and has potential to provide a nearly inexhaustible supply of energy.

A. Match the words in column A with the meanings in column B.
Column A             Column B
a. fleet----------- iii. a group of something
b. inflatable----iv. capable of being filled with air
c. harness-------vii. to control and use the force or strength of something
d. vane----------i. a flat plane that is moved by wind
e. skyscraper---ii. a very tall building
f. fission---------v. the act or process of splitting the nucleus of an atom
g. bountiful----vi. in large quantities

B. Find the antonyms of the following words from the text.
Answer -
endless -finite
modern -traditional
covered - revealed
fragrant -odorless
bound - autonomous
inadequate- bountiful

C. Match the idea numbers in column A to the correct idea in column B.
Answer - 
Column A           Column B
a. Idea I------iv. solar energy
b. Idea II-----v. energy through body movement
c. Idea III-----i. wave energy
d. Idea IV----ii. hydrogen energy
e. Idea V----vi. altaeros energy
f. Idea VI----iii. energy through the fusion process

D. Answer the following questions.
a. How did JAXA prove the viability for the idea of space-based solar energy?
Answer - JAXA proved the viability of the idea of space-based solar energy by successfully converting 1.8 kilowatts of electricity into microwaves, after which they wirelessly beamed them a distance of 50 meters.

b. What do we need to generate energy through our body movement?
Answer - In order to generate energy through our body movement we simply need to wear a system that collects and converts the energy generated through our body movement.

c. In what way are Idea III and V similar?
Answer - Ideas III and IV are similar because both ideas emphasize on the conversion of one form of energy into another form. 

d. How can hydrogen be used as a source of energy?
Answer - We can use hydrogen as a source of energy by separating it from other elements. This gas yields high energy with no urity.

e. Why do floating turbines seem more effective than tower-mounted turbines?
Answer - 
Floating turbines seem more effective than tower-mount turbines because floating turbines produced double the energy as tower-mounted turbines.

f. Why is the fusion process environmentally friendly?
Answer - 
We can say that the fusion process is environment-friendly because it emits no pollutants or greenhouse gases and has no threat of nuclear meltdown.

g. What does ITER stand for?
Answer - 
ITER stands for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

E. Can you think of any other alternative energy sources? Talk about your ideas with your friends.
Answer - Looking at the scenario of my area, the most relevant and viable form of alternative energy sources would be bioenergy. We can generate bioenergy from organic materials known as biomass biofuels. Some examples would be recently living animal or plant byproducts and wood. For example, methane can be captured from landfills to produce bioenergy, which we then can use to produce electricity and heat. As an agricultural country, Nepal has a huge potential to generate bioenergy. In rural areas, people rear animals and they have agricultural residue in order to produce energy. In urban areas, a lot of waste gets produced and from this waste, we can separate organic waste and produce an adequate amount of energy from such waste. So, one alternative energy source that I think of is bioenergy.

Grammar II
A. Fill in the gaps with suitable relative pronouns.
a. Is that the spot ..................... you had the accident?
Answer - where

b. The photograph ..................... you saw was taken a long time ago.
Answer - which

c. Are those the students ..................... you were talking about?
Answer - whom

d. Last week, I went to visit the town ..................... my friend lives.
Answer - where

e. This is the house ..................... my uncle and aunt live.
Answer - where

f. These are the girls ..................... work hard.
Answer - who

g. Krishna was the boy ..................... everyone appreciated.
Answer - whom

h. This is the judge ..................... is known for her wise decisions.
Answer - who

i. This is the site .............. I intend to build a house.
Answer - where

j. The tiger ............ terrified the villagers was sent to the zoo yesterday.
Answer - which

k. The tree ............... he cut down was not a large one.
Answer - which

l. Mt. Everest ..................... is the highest peak in the world, lies in Solukhumbu district.
Answer - which

B. Rewrite the following pairs of sentences using who, whom, whose, which/that, or where.
a. Are these the keys? You were looking for the keys.
Answer -  Are these the keys that you were looking for?

b. Unfortunately, we couldn't attend the wedding. We were invited to the wedding.
Answer - Unfortunately we couldn't attend the wedding to which we were invited.

c. What is the name of the hotel? Your brother works in the hotel.
Answer - What is the name of the hotel where your brother works?

d. The party wasn't enjoyable. We attended the party last Saturday.
Answer - The party which we attended last Saturday wasn't enjoyable

e. What is the name of the boy? The boy's father is a dentist.
Answer - What is the name of the boy whose father is a dentist?

f. Who was the man? You talked to the man in the restaurant.
Answer - Who was the man whom you talked to in the restaurant?

g. What is the name of the shop? They sell medicine in the shop.
Answer - What is the name of the shop in which they sell medicine?

h. Is this the man? The man donated all his property to a hospital.
Answer - Is this the man who donated all his property to a hospital? 

Writing II
Write a news article about Green Energy. Use the following prompts.
Answer - Green energy is the type of energy that is generated from a natural source such as sunlight, wind or water. It often comes from renewable energy sources although there are some differences between renewable and green| energy. Renewable energy is the generation of energy from infinite sources but can negatively impact the environment. However, green energy is renewable energy that does not produce carbon emissions or negatively impact the environment. 
Green energy is perpetual in nature and it never comes to an end. Green energy is the most advantageous source of energy as it doesn't impact the environment negatively at all. However, the economic production and consumption of green energy is a challenging task. Though the developed countries in the present world have made good progress in the production and consumption of green energy, it is a very challenging task for developing countries such as Nepal regarding the production and consumption of green energy.

Project work

Do yourself

Class 9 English Guide - Click any unit and view class 9 English notes

Unit - 1 Travel and Holidays

Unit - 2 Health and Hygiene

Unit - 3 Family, Market and Public Places

Unit - 4 Life and Death

Unit - 5 Ethics, Norms and Values

Unit - 6 Custom and Culture

Unit - 7 Ecology and Environment

Unit - 8 Science and Technology

Unit - 9 Work and Leisure

Unit - 10 The Earth and Space

Unit - 11 Gadgets and Instruments

Unit - 12 People and Places

Unit - 13 Organisation Profile and Authority

Unit - 14 History and Civilisation

Unit - 15 People and Lifestyle

Unit - 16 Games and Sports

Unit - 17 Global Warming and Climate Change

Unit - 18 Transportation and Communication

Class 9 English Guide - Click any unit and view class 9 English notes

Unit - 1 Travel and Holidays

Unit - 2 Health and Hygiene

Unit - 3 Family, Market and Public Places

Unit - 4 Life and Death

Unit - 5 Ethics, Norms and Values

Unit - 6 Custom and Culture

Unit - 7 Ecology and Environment

Unit - 8 Science and Technology

Unit - 9 Work and Leisure

Unit - 10 The Earth and Space

Unit - 11 Gadgets and Instruments

Unit - 12 People and Places

Unit - 13 Organisation Profile and Authority

Unit - 14 History and Civilisation

Unit - 15 People and Lifestyle

Unit - 16 Games and Sports

Unit - 17 Global Warming and Climate Change

Unit - 18 Transportation and Communication

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