Unit 19 Migration and Diaspora Guide : Class 12 English I Solution

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Unit 19

Migration and Diaspora
Answer Key..................


WORKING WITH WORDS 

A. Find the words from the text that have the following meanings. 
The first letter of the word has been given. 

a. S..................a person who resides temporarily in a place 
Answer πŸ‘‰ sojourners 

b. ............. existing in or involving different countries 
Answer πŸ‘‰ transnational 

c. ................. a sum of money sent in payment or as a gift 
Answer πŸ‘‰ remittance 

d. a............. the process of allowing somebody to become a part of a 
country or community 
Answer πŸ‘‰ assimilation 

e. m ............ a name or a word that is not appropriate or accurate Answer πŸ‘‰ misnomer 

f. C................. to give somebody an award or a particular honour or right - 
Answer πŸ‘‰ confer 

g. d.................. not active or growing now but able to become active - 
Answer πŸ‘‰ dormant 

i. p......... the act of treating somebody in a cruel and unfair way 
Answer πŸ‘‰ persecution 



c. The vocal cords vibrate while producing voiced sounds. The initial sound/d3/in jam is a voiced sound. The vocal cords do not vibrate while producing voiceless sounds. The initial sound /p/ is a voiceless sound. Pronounce the sounds in the above chart. While pronouncing, notice whether the vocal cords vibrate or not and categorize them into voiced and voiceless sounds. 

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

All sounds are either voiced or voiceless. Voiced sounds are those that make our vocal cords vibrate when they are produced. Voiceless sounds are produced from air passing through the mouth at different points. 

Voiced Consonant Sounds: b, d, g, j, l, m, n, ng, r, sz, th, v, w, y ,z

Voiceless Consonant Sounds: ch, h, f, k, p, s, sh, t, th. 





C. Write the number of syllables and mark the stressed syllable of the following words. 

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

certificate - cer-tif-i-cate - 4 syllables 

holiday - hol-i-day - 3 syllables 

zoology - Zo-'ol-o-gy - 4 syllables 

photographic -foh-tΙ™-'grΓ¦f-ik -4 syllables 

geography -ge-og-ra-phy - 4 syllables 

curiosity -cu-ri-'os-i-ty - 5 syllables 

mechanically -me-chan-ic-a-li -5 syllables 

characteristics - kΓ‘rΙ™ktΙ™'risdik -5 syllables 

examination - ex-am-i-'na-tion -5 syllables 

negotiation - ne-go-ti-'a-tion -5 syllables 

paraphrase 'par-a-phrase’ - 3 syllables 

paradoxically -'pΓ¦rΙ™ dpksikli -6 syllables 

territoriality -terat(Ι™)ri'Γ¦lΙ™ti -7 svilables 





COMPREHENSION


A. Match the first halves of the sentences 

One has been done as an example. 

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

a. The term assimilation has been used - (-iii. as an analytical tool in the study of integration of the migrants. 


b. It is essential to study the process of diasporization -v. in order to understand the description of immigration. 


c. The definition of dediasporization -vii, focuses only on the aspect of relocating migrants to their homelands. 


d. The dediasporization process for migrants who have not given up  their native citizenship -Vi. requires them only to return to their homeland. 


e. Some countries grant full citizenship to the returnees -iv. While 

some countries bar them from certain rights. 


f. It is surprising that -i, in some countries the returnees are 

referred as diaspora. 


g. The role of a state in diasporization -ii, reveals its cientity 







B. Answer the following questions. 


a. According to the author, what are the three aspects of migration?

According to the author, the three aspects of migration are emigration, diaspora, and return migration.



b. Which aspect of migration is neglected by the researchers?

The aspect of return migration is neglected by researchers.



c. What is 'dediasporization'?

‘Dediasporization’ refers to the process of reversing or undoing diaspora formations, often through return migration.



d. Why is the role of the state important in dediasporization?

The role of the state is important in dediasporization because the state can provide incentives, support, and policies that encourage return migration and reintegration into the homeland.



e. How is the Chinese diaspora in the Caribbean different from others?

The Chinese diaspora in the Caribbean is different from others because it was largely created through free migration and not forced migration, slavery, or indentured servitude.



f. Why is it difficult to regain citizenship after returning to the homeland?

 It is difficult to regain citizenship after returning to the homeland because some countries have strict citizenship laws that require proof of lineage or residency.



g. What do the Germans feel towards the returnees from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan?

Germans have mixed feelings towards returnees from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. While some welcome them, others view them with suspicion and as outsiders.



h. How are the returnees' activities in Israel different from that of other countries?

 The returnees’ activities in Israel are different from that of other countries because they often participate in agricultural settlements and the military.



i. What is the role of the individual in dediasporization?

 The role of the individual in dediasporization is important because individuals must decide to return and actively participate in the process of reintegration into the homeland.






CRITICAL THINKING 

a. Many Nepali people are living in foreign countries now and they are known as Non Residential Nepalis (NRNS-HIYOH UST). The NRNs are asking for dual citizenship rights. Do you think the Government of Nepal should address their demands? 

Whether or not the Government of Nepal should address the demands of NRNs for dual citizenship rights is a complex issue that requires careful consideration. On the one hand, NRNs may contribute to the economic development of Nepal through remittances, investment, and other means. Granting them dual citizenship rights may encourage them to invest more in Nepal and may also enhance their sense of belonging to the country. On the other hand, granting dual citizenship may also lead to the risk of diluting Nepali nationality and may have political implications. The government needs to weigh the benefits and drawbacks of granting dual citizenship and make a well-informed decision that serves the interests of the country and its people.




b. The NRKs celebrate festivals like Teej, Dashain, Lhosar, Id and Holi in foreign countries. What do these celebrations signify? 

Celebrating festivals like Teej, Dashain, Lhosar, Id, and Holi in foreign countries signify the cultural and religious values and traditions of Nepali people. These festivals play a significant role in binding the Nepali diaspora together and preserving their cultural heritage. They also provide an opportunity for Nepalis living abroad to connect with their roots and pass on their traditions to the next generation. Celebrating festivals in foreign countries can also help to promote Nepali culture and build bridges between different communities. However, the meanings and practices of these festivals may vary depending on the context and the social and cultural dynamics of the Nepali diaspora in different countries.



Writing 


A. The following words and phrases are used in interpreting data of different types of charts and diagrams. Study the words/phrases and put them in the right column. 

Answer πŸ‘‰ Upward Trend: grow, go up to, boom, peak, rise, climb, increase

Downward Trend: decline, collapse, fall, drop, dip, go down, reduce, decrease, crash, plunge, plummet

Stable Trend: stay constant, remain stable, no change, remain steady, stay, maintain the same level, level up.


B. Interpret data in the following charts and graphs using appropriate words and phrases. Make comparisons when required.

a. Nepali student migration:

The chart shows the number of Nepali students migrating for higher education in English-speaking countries. The number of Nepali students going to study in English-speaking countries grew steadily between 2008 and 2012, with a peak of 229 students in 2012. However, after that year, the trend declined, reaching its lowest point in 2016 with only 113 students. From 2016 onwards, there has been a slight increase in the number of Nepali students going to English-speaking countries, but the trend has remained unstable.


b. Reasons for internal migration:

According to the chart, economic reasons are the main driver of internal migration in Nepal, followed by social reasons. Employment opportunities seem to be the major factor, accounting for more than half of the migration. Social reasons, such as marriage and education, are also important factors. Natural disasters and environmental degradation seem to be less influential, accounting for only 1.5% of the reasons for internal migration.


c. Trend of death of migrant workers:

The chart shows the trend of deaths among Nepali migrant workers in foreign countries. The number of deaths among Nepali migrant workers was high in 2009 and 2010, with 449 and 510 deaths respectively. The trend then decreased steadily from 2010 to 2014, with a sharp decline from 2014 to 2015. From 2015 onwards, the trend has remained relatively stable, with a slight increase in 2019. Overall, there has been a significant reduction in the number of deaths among Nepali migrant workers in recent years.



Grammar

B. Study the following sentences and find the differences between them. 

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

a. My grandfather used to smoke but he doesn't smoke now. 

b. I would always talk to my grandfather whenever I had a problem. 




Now, complete the sentences with used to or would. 

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

d. My sister ...used to....have short hair when she was young. 

e. We... used to ... have lunch in the same school cafΓ© when I was in middle school. 

f. My father ... used to …play badminton before he had a backbone problem. 

G. When I was very young, .... did not use to...(not) like milk. 

H. She ... would....call me after class for a chat. 

I. My mother ... did not use to ...... (not) wear glasses when she was at the university.

J. when I was a child, we used to ...... live in a village. 

k. On Sundays, My mother would. wake up and go to the temple. 

l. How many friends ...would....have in class ten? 

m. My father ... would... always read me bedtime stories before bed.




All Class 12 English Book Solution Link Unitwise

Section I : Language Development

Section II : Literature
Unit - 1 Short Stories


Unit - 2 Poems

Unit - 3 Essays


Unit - 4 One Act Plays



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