Unit 20 Power and Politics Guide : Class 12 English I Solution

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Unit 20 Power and Politics

Class 12 English Notes...


Working with words

A. Find the words from the text for these meanings. The first letters have been given for you.
Answer πŸ‘‰ 
a. reluctance unwillingness or disinclination to do something
b. repressive preventing the expression or awareness of thoughts or desires
c. mutilation the infliction of serious damage on something
d. ghettoized restricted to an isolated or segregated place, group, or situation
e. history feminist history viewed from a female or specifically feminist perspective
f. genital relating to the human or animal reproductive organs
g. hysterectomies surgical operations to remove all or part of the uterus
h. paranoid obsessively anxious, suspicious, or mistrustful
i. eventuation thrusting forward of abdominal organs through the abdominal wall

B. Complete the chart.
Answer πŸ‘‰ 
VerbNounAdjective
commitcommitmentcommitted
nurturenurturancenurturable
legitimatelegitimizationlegitimize
oppressoppressionoppressive
defensedefensivenessdefensive
victimizevictimizationvictimized


C. Consult a dictionary and define these terms.
racism, lesbian, radical, feminist, patriarchy
Answer πŸ‘‰ 
racism: the belief that some races are inherently superior or inferior to others, and the resulting discrimination and prejudice based on such belief.

lesbian: a woman who is attracted romantically or sexually to other women.

radical: advocating or supporting fundamental or extreme change, especially in politics or social structures.

feminist: a person who advocates for and supports equal rights and opportunities for women.

patriarchy: a social system in which men hold primary power and authority, often at the expense of women and other marginalized groups.


D. Underline the consonant clusters in the following sentences.
Answer πŸ‘‰ 
a. fl-ff, fl-p-fl, v-r th- fl-r.
b. th- wh-ts s-ng - s-ng -b--t th- str-k-ng st-rs.
c. h-r- -r- s-m- fl-w-rs -nd - fl-sk -f t- - f-v--r-t-fl-fl-v-r.
d. sm-t- f-ll -ll w-th fl-.
e. My fr--nd -s fr-ght-n-d -f fr-gs.
f. Th-mb-l-n- st-mbl-d -t -f th- gr--n b-sh.
g. Sh- h--rd - r-mbl- -nd - cry.
h. ‘Cl-mb up’, s--d T-m.
i. Fr--d-m n--ds t- b- str-v-d f-r.
j. Ch-ldr-n w-r- m-nch-ng cr-nchy Fr-nch fr--s.


Comprehension

Answer the following questions.

a. Why does Audre Lorde think that Mary got a sort of victory in the University of Boston?
Audre Lorde thinks that Mary got a sort of victory in the University of Boston because Mary's book, which excluded black women, was still accepted and published by the predominantly white institution, perpetuating the erasure and exclusion of black women.


b. Why is Lorde thankful to Mary?
 Lorde is thankful to Mary for bringing to light the issue of the erasure of black women in feminist movements and highlighting the need for intersectionality in feminist discourse.


c. What impression has the writer had about the way white women looked upon black women?
 The writer has had the impression that white women often looked down upon black women and failed to recognize their experiences and struggles as women of color.


d. Why did Mary not cast black women as goddesses in her book according to Lorde?
 Mary did not cast black women as goddesses in her book because she was operating within the white feminist framework that did not consider the experiences of black women.


e. Why did Lorde think that she misused her words?
Lorde thought that she misused her words because she utilized her words only to testify against Lorde as a woman of colour.


f. For Lorde, how were women, especially from the black community, undervalued?
For Lorde, women, especially from the black community, were undervalued because their experiences and struggles were often overlooked and dismissed in mainstream feminist discourse.


g. How does Mary take white women as? Does Lorde agree with Mary’s view?
Mary takes white women as the default and fails to recognize the intersectionality of different identities and experiences. Lorde does not agree with Mary's view and instead advocates for a more inclusive and intersectional approach to feminism.


h. What is Afrekete? How does it connect to this lesson?
Afrekete is a Yoruba goddess who embodies the qualities of strength, resilience, and creativity. It connects to this lesson because it highlights the need for diverse representation and recognition of different experiences and identities in feminist discourse.





Critical thinking

a. “The oppression of women knows no ethnic or racial boundaries.” Do you agree or not? Justify with your reasons.

Yes, I agree that the oppression of women knows no ethnic or racial boundaries. Oppression is a systemic issue that affects women across different cultures, ethnicities, and races. The forms and intensity of oppression may differ based on various social, cultural, and historical factors, but the underlying mechanisms of patriarchy, gender inequality, and sexism are universal. Women across the world have been denied their basic human rights, such as education, healthcare, employment opportunities, and freedom of expression, and have been subjected to violence, discrimination, and marginalization.

Women face unique challenges and barriers based on their socio-economic, cultural, and historical contexts, and intersectionality plays an essential role in understanding the complexity of oppression. Women from marginalized communities, such as women of color, indigenous women, and women with disabilities, experience compounded forms of discrimination based on their gender and other social identities. However, at the core of all these forms of oppression lies the patriarchal system that perpetuates gender inequality and restricts women's agency and autonomy.



b. Why is it important to question our beliefs and values? How are they set up in a person’s mind?

Beliefs and values are central to human identity, shaping our attitudes, behaviors, and worldviews. They influence our decision-making processes, social interactions, and personal relationships. However, not all beliefs and values are inherently beneficial, and some may be detrimental to individual and collective well-being. Therefore, it is crucial to question our beliefs and values to ensure that they align with our personal goals, aspirations, and ethical principles.

Beliefs and values are formed through a complex process that involves socialization, cultural norms, and personal experiences. Socialization, which includes family, education, and media, plays a crucial role in shaping beliefs and values, as they provide a framework for understanding the world and our place in it. Cultural norms, such as religion, politics, and tradition, also contribute to shaping beliefs and values, as they provide a shared understanding of what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior.

Personal experiences, such as trauma, success, and failure, can also influence beliefs and values, as they provide a lens through which we view ourselves and the world. However, these experiences can also be biased, and our interpretation of them may not reflect reality.

Questioning our beliefs and values is essential because it allows us to critically evaluate their validity, relevance, and impact on our lives and those around us. By questioning our beliefs and values, we can identify those that no longer serve us, challenge those that are harmful to ourselves or others, and develop new ones that align with our personal and ethical principles.





Writing

A. Have you ever faced or witnessed cases of racial or sexual discrimination? Write
a short account.
Answer πŸ‘‰ 
iscrimination of any kind is a serious issue that affects individuals and society as a whole. It is important to create a safe and inclusive environment for everyone, regardless of their race, gender, or any other characteristic.



B. Write an article for a national daily on “The Status of Women in Nepali Society.”

The Status of Women in Nepali Society

Nepal has made progress in various areas such as education, health, and employment, but women's status in society remains a concern. Discrimination, violence, and unequal treatment continue to affect women's daily lives, limiting their opportunities and potential.

One of the main challenges women face is the lack of education. Despite the government's efforts to promote education for all, many girls drop out of school due to poverty, early marriage, and social norms that prioritize boys' education. This limits their ability to acquire knowledge, skills, and opportunities for employment, making them dependent on their families or spouses.

Women's health is another area of concern. Maternal mortality rates are high, and many women lack access to proper healthcare, especially in rural areas. This is exacerbated by social norms that limit women's mobility and decision-making power in matters related to their health.

Violence against women is another issue that remains prevalent in Nepali society. Women face physical, sexual, and psychological abuse in both public and private spaces. This is often accompanied by a lack of access to justice, making it difficult for women to seek legal recourse or protection.

To address these challenges, it is essential to create an enabling environment for women's empowerment. This requires a multi-sectoral approach that involves education, health, employment, and legal systems. It also requires a change in social norms and attitudes that perpetuate discrimination and violence against women.

There have been some positive steps in recent years, such as the adoption of gender-responsive policies and the establishment of women's rights organizations. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve gender equality and empower women in Nepali society.

In conclusion, the status of women in Nepali society remains a concern, and it requires concerted efforts to create a safe and inclusive environment for women. We need to promote education, health, and employment opportunities for women and change the social norms and attitudes that perpetuate discrimination and violence against them. Only then can we achieve a society that is equitable and just for all.


Grammar

B. Choose the correct alternative.

a. an old foreign car/a foreign old car
an old foreign car

b. a beautiful white dress/ a white beautiful dress
a beautiful white dress

c. a nice tall young man/a tall nice young man
a nice tall young man

d. a big black wooden desk/ a black wooden big desk
a big black wooden desk

e. a delicious Italian pizza/ an Italian delicious pizza
a delicious Italian pizza

f. a huge brown bear/a brown huge bear
a huge brown bear

g. a purple cotton sleeping bag/ a cotton purple sleeping bag
a purple cotton sleeping bag

h. a beautiful old Indian village/an old beautiful Indian village
an old beautiful Indian village

i. a cute little kitten/ a little cute kitten
a cute little kitten

j. an expensive antique /an antique expensive table
an antique expensive table





C. Put the adjectives in the following sentences in the correct order.

a. I bought (red/ a /comfortable/new) scooter.
I bought a comfortable new scooter.

b. She reached home and sat on (relaxing/old/her/wooden) chair.
She reached home and sat on her old relaxing wooden chair.

c. We ate (Chinese/delicious/some) food.
we ate some delicious Chinese food.

d. I need (golden/delicious/some/round) apples.
I need some delicious round golden apples.

e. We like to live in a (calm/unmediated/remote) place for some time.
We like to live in a calm unmediated remote place for some time.

f. She is wearing (silver/beautiful / a(n)/ old) ring.
She is wearing an old beautiful silver ring.

g. I am looking for (golden/stylish/a/Japanese) watch.
I am looking for a stylish Japanese golden watch.

h. She dropped (old/china/attractive/a(n)) cup and smashed it.
She dropped an old attractive China cup and smashed it.

i. He wants to marry (young/pretty/educated/a(n)/rustic) girl.
He wants to marry a pretty young educated rustic girl.

j. We stayed in a (luxurious/five star/new) hotel in Dubai.
We stayed in a new luxurious five-star hotel in Dubai.

All Class 12 English Book Solution Link Unitwise

Section I : Language Development

Section II : Literature
Unit - 1 Short Stories


Unit - 2 Poems

Unit - 3 Essays


Unit - 4 One Act Plays



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