Class 11 English Book Section - I Unit - 8 Humor And Satire

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 Section - I

Unit - 8

Humour And Satire


Ways with words

A. Match the following.

Answer 👉 

transcendental 👉  spiritual, nonphysical or mystical

deplore 👉 to feel or express strong disapproval of (something)

absolve 👉  set free from blame, guilt, or responsibility; release

juju 👉  a charm or fetish used by some West African people

crude👉  natural state

chronicle 👉 a written record of historical events



B. Find the contextual meanings of the following words from the text and then use them in sentences of your own.

Answer 👉 

Condemn: to express strong disapproval of; criticize

Example: The judge condemned the defendant's actions as unethical and illegal.


Terror: a feeling of extreme fear

Example: The terror attacks on 9/11 shook the entire world.


Unbidden: not invited or requested

Example: Unbidden, she joined the conversation and offered her opinion.


Persist: to continue firmly or obstinately in an opinion or a course of action

Example: Despite challenges, the entrepreneur persisted in his dream of starting a successful business.


Devout: deeply religious; showing great commitment to one's faith

Example: The devout followers gathered at the temple to perform their daily prayers.


Banish: to expel or send away, especially from one's own country

Example: The prince was banished from the kingdom for his treasonous actions.


Creed: a set of beliefs or principles

Example: The creed of the organization is to promote peace and justice for all.


Hasten: to move or act quickly

Example: The emergency services hastened to the scene of the accident.


Sober: not under the influence of alcohol; serious and calm

Example: After a night of partying, he felt the need to have a sober conversation with his best friend.


Scorn: a feeling of contempt or disrespect for someone or something

Example: The young woman scorned the idea of dating someone just for their money.


Yearning: a strong feeling of desire or longing for something

Example: She had a yearning for adventure and decided to travel the world.


Aloof: distant and uninvolved; reserved

Example: The aloof cat sat on the windowsill, watching the world go by.


Swarthy: having dark skin or a dark complexion

Example: The swarthy man was from the tropical region of South America.


Humbler: having or showing a modest or low estimate of one's own importance

Example: Despite his success, he remained a humbler person and always gave credit to those who helped him along the way.




C. Trace the origins of each of the following words finding such explanations in a dictionary or the Internet. Then make sentences by using each word.

Answer 👉 

Minatory: From Latin minatorius

Meaning = threating

The hate group left a minatory threat in the form of a burning cross on the couple’s lawn.


Placated: From Latin Placast

Meaning = make somebody less angry

She was well placated when he did go on to choose Marley.


Cajoled: From French Cajoler

Meaning = pursuit somebody gently

I managed to cajole her out of leaving too early.


Antedates: From Latin ante

Meaning = predate; put earlier date; occur earlier than something

This event antedates the discovery of America by several centuries.


Proliferated: From Latin prolifer

Meaning = increase greatly; give birth

Bead stores seem to have proliferated the American landscape.


Philter: From Greek philtron

Meaning = magical tonic; love potion

He’s just full of magic philter.




D. List any five words found in an English dictionary beginning with the prefix ‘super-.’ What common meaning do all of these words share? How do the words in your list change meaning if you eliminate the prefix?

Answer 👉 

a.

Superimpose = lay over; place on the top

Impose = enforce something; insist on something


b.

Superman = exceptional man; man with strength power

Man = adult male human; person


c.

Supernatural = super human; beyond the nature

Natural = related to nature; produced by nature


d.

Supernumerary = extra; exceeding; many of

Numerary = number; of numbers


e.

Superstar = above other artist; more popular artist

Star = mass of gas in space; popular artist



Class 11 English Notes

Comprehension

Answer these questions.

a. According to the author, what are the four types of superstition?

Answer 👉 The author mentions four types of superstition: personal, cultural, religious, and existential.


b. Which language is the word 'superstition' derived from? What does it mean?

Answer 👉 The word "superstition" is derived from the Latin word "superstitio", which means "excessive fear of the gods".


c. How do psychologists understand superstition?

Answer 👉 Psychologists understand superstition as a form of magical thinking in which people believe that their actions or thoughts can influence events in the world, even when there is no causal connection between the two.


d. How does superstition differ from religion?

Answer 👉 Superstition differs from religion in that religion typically involves a belief in a higher power and a moral code, whereas superstition is more focused on specific actions or events that are thought to bring good luck or avoid bad luck.


e. What is the belief of some people in the Middle Europe about sneezing?

Answer 👉  In Middle Europe, some people believe that sneezing is a sign that someone is thinking of you.


f. In the author’s view, why are people so fascinated about superstition?

Answer 👉 The author believes that people are so fascinated by superstition because it offers them a sense of control and predictability in a world that can often seem unpredictable and chaotic. Superstitions can provide people with a sense of comfort and security, and they can also serve as a way of connecting with others who share similar beliefs.




Critical Thinking

a. What is the key takeaway of this essay? Do you think that this essay is satirical? Why?

Answer 👉 The key takeaway of this essay is that superstitions are a part of human nature and have been present in different cultures throughout history. The essay describes the different types of superstitions, the origins of the word, and how psychologists view it. It also touches on the difference between superstition and religion.



b. Can education bring change in the belief of superstition? Present your arguments to support your answer.

Answer 👉 

Education can play a role in changing the belief in superstition, as education can help increase critical thinking skills and provide scientific explanations for certain beliefs or practices. However, the belief in superstition is often deeply ingrained in a person's culture and upbringing, so changing these beliefs can be challenging. Additionally, superstitions may serve a psychological purpose for some individuals, providing them with a sense of comfort or control in uncertain situations. In these cases, education alone may not be enough to change a person's beliefs.

Ultimately, the impact of education on superstition beliefs will vary from person to person and will depend on a variety of factors, including cultural background, personal experiences, and the strength of their beliefs.




Writing

a. Write an essay on superstitions that exists in your community in about 250 words.

Answer 👉 

Superstitions in My Community

Superstitions are a common part of many cultures and communities. In my community, there are several superstitions that people hold on to and practice. One of the most common superstitions is that if a black cat crosses your path, it is considered to bring bad luck. People often try to avoid such an encounter, and some even go to the extent of turning back or taking a different route.

Another common superstition in my community is that it is considered bad luck to leave your home on a Tuesday or a Friday if you haven't seen the face of the sun. Many people believe that this will result in bad luck for the entire day. It is also believed that if you break a mirror, you will have seven years of bad luck. This superstition is widely followed, and people take extra care not to break mirrors.

Many people in my community also believe that if you whistle at night, you will attract evil spirits. This superstition is taken very seriously, and people often try not to whistle after dark. It is also believed that if you see a shooting star, you should make a wish, and it will come true. People often go out of their way to spot a shooting star, just so they can make a wish.

In conclusion, superstitions are an integral part of my community, and people hold these beliefs with great reverence. Although superstitions are often considered irrational, they still play a significant role in shaping the behavior of individuals in the community.




b. “Superstition is prevalent in every walk of life.” Argue for or against this statement.

Answer 👉 

Yes. Superstition is a belief or practice that is not based on science or reason, and is often associated with fear, anxiety, or magical thinking. While it is true that superstition exists in every culture and is often deeply rooted in tradition, it is also possible to argue against the statement that it is prevalent in every walk of life.

On the one hand, superstitions are found in all types of societies, from rural to urban, and in all aspects of daily life, from health and relationships to wealth and success. People may carry out specific rituals to ward off bad luck or invite good fortune, and they may believe in certain omens or symbols that they associate with good or bad luck.

However, on the other hand, it can also be argued that superstition is not prevalent in every walk of life. In modern, technologically advanced societies, many people may not hold such beliefs or participate in superstitious practices. Science and reason have replaced traditional beliefs and practices in many cases, and people may place their trust in technology and medicine instead of superstition.

Additionally, not everyone may hold the same beliefs or practice the same rituals. The prevalence of superstition may vary from one individual to another, from one group to another, or from one culture to another. While some may be deeply invested in superstitious beliefs and practices, others may not have any involvement with them at all.

In conclusion, while it is true that superstition exists in many cultures and aspects of daily life, it may not be prevalent in every walk of life. The extent to which people believe in and practice superstition may vary depending on individual, cultural, and social factors.




Grammar

B. Put the verb into the correct form, present simple or present continuous.

Answer 👉 

a. Nisha speaks (speak) English very well.

b. Hurry up! We are waiting (wait) for you.

c. Excuse me! Do you speak (you/speak) English?

d. She is having (have) a shower in bathroom.

e. How often do you read (you/read) a newspaper?

f. I’m sorry, I don’t understand (not/understand). Can you speak more slowly?

g. You can turn off the radio. I am not listening (not/listen) to it.

h. I usually get up (get up) at 5 o’clock every morning.

i. Look! The river is flowing (flow) very fast.

j. Amrita does not seem (not/seem) very happy at the moment.




C. Are the underlined verbs in the correct form? Correct them where necessary.

Answer 👉 

a. Water boils at 100° C.

Water boils at 100° C.


b. The water boils. Can you turn it off?

The water is boiling. Can you turn it off?


c. I must go now. It gets late.

I must go now. It is geting late.


d. This sauce’s tasting really good.

This sauce tastes really good.


e. I’m thinking this is your key.

I think this is your key.


f. Are you believing in God?

Do you believe in God?


g. I usually go to school on foot.

I usually go to school on foot.


h. Look! That man tries to open the door of her car.

Look! That man is trying to open the door of her car.


i. The moon is going round the earth.

The moon goes round the earth.


j. I’m getting hungry. Let’s go and eat.

I’m getting hungry. Let’s go and eat.


All Class 11 English Book Solution Link Unitwise

Section I : Language Development



Section II : Literature
Unit - 1 Short Stories


Unit - 2 Poems

Unit - 3 Essays

Unit - 4 One Act Plays






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