Class 11 English Section I Unit 4 History and Culture Notebook Solution

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 Section I

Unit 4 

History and Culture


Ways with words

A. Match the words with their meanings.

Brevity πŸ‘‰ lasting only for a short time

Conquest πŸ‘‰ victory over a place or people by use of military force

Resemblance πŸ‘‰ the state of being alike

Barbarian πŸ‘‰ a member of an uncivilized group of people of culture

Ally πŸ‘‰ one state united to another by a treaty or a league for a military purpose

Nobility πŸ‘‰ state of being noble in character, quality, or rank

Ruthlessness πŸ‘‰ character of having no pity or compassion

Decimation πŸ‘‰ the killing or destruction of a large number of a population

Harsh πŸ‘‰ cruel

Elixir πŸ‘‰ liquid that is believed to cure all ills




B. Find the following words in the text and use them in sentences of your own.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

The invasion of the country resulted in widespread destruction and loss of life.

The company showed a total disregard for the environment, dumping toxic waste into the river.

The safety of the passengers was paramount, so the airline took all necessary precautions before takeoff.

The populace was fed up with the government's corruption and took to the streets in protest.

The assassination of the prime minister sent shockwaves throughout the country.

Serfdom was abolished in the 19th century, granting freedom to millions of people who had been tied to the land.

The revolt against the dictator was led by a group of brave individuals who sought to restore democracy.




D. Consult a dictionary and prepare a list of ten homographs.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

Bass – a type of fish/low, deep voice

Bat – a piece of sports equipment/an animal

Evening – smoothing out/after sunset

Bear – to endure/animal

Close – connected/lock

Lean – thin/rest against

Bow – bend forward/front of a ship

Lead – metal/start off in front

Skip – jump/miss out

Fair – appearance/reasonable


Class 11 English Notes and full solution

Comprehension

A. Complete the table with the correct information from the text.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

PeriodInformation
Qin DynastyThe Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 BCE to 206 BCE.
Zhou DynastyThe Zhou Dynasty was a feudal dynasty in ancient China, lasting from 1046 BCE to 256 BCE. It was called a feudal age.
Warring StatesThe Warring States was a period of intense warfare and conflict in ancient China, lasting from 475 BCE to 221 BCE.
Unification of China by QinThe unification of China by the Qin was a key event in Chinese history, marking the end of the Warring States period and the beginning of the Qin dynasty.
First Emperor of Qin DynastyShi Huangdi was the first emperor of the Qin dynasty and is often credited with the unification of China.
Death of Shi HuangdiShi Huangdi died in 210 BCE, during a tour of Eastern China.
Liu Bang PeriodThe Liu Bang Period was the beginning of the Han dynasty in ancient China, lasting from 206 BCE to 9 CE.


B. Answer these questions.

a. Why is the Zhou Age called a feudal age?

Answer πŸ‘‰  The Zhou Age is called a feudal age because it was characterized by a decentralized political system in which local lords held power over their lands and vassals, and owed loyalty to the Zhou king in return for military protection and political recognition. This system of relationships between lords and vassals is often referred to as feudalism.

b. What is the location advantage of the Qin?

Answer πŸ‘‰ The location advantage of the Qin was its strategic position at the western edge of the fertile plains of China, which allowed it to control important trade routes and defend against invasions from the nomadic tribes of the northwest. Additionally, the Qin had access to abundant natural resources, including fertile land, minerals, and waterways, which supported the growth of agriculture and commerce.

c. What contributed to the success in the warfare as described in the text?

Answer πŸ‘‰ The success in warfare as described in the text can be attributed to several factors. One of the key factors was the use of iron weapons and military tactics, which gave the Qin army a significant advantage over their opponents. Additionally, the Qin government centralized control over the army and adopted a highly organized and efficient military structure, which allowed for swift and coordinated action on the battlefield.

d. Why did the Qin invite the foreign advisor, Shang Yang?

Answer πŸ‘‰ The Qin invited the foreign advisor, Shang Yang, to help reform its political and economic system. Shang Yang was a legalist philosopher who believed in the importance of strict laws and centralized power. He introduced reforms aimed at increasing state power, including the standardization of weights and measures, the codification of laws, and the introduction of a merit-based system for selecting officials.

e. What were the key features of the Qin political system?

Answer πŸ‘‰ The key features of the Qin political system were centralization and the strict enforcement of laws. The Qin emperor held ultimate power over the government and the military, and the legal system was based on strict laws and punishments to maintain order and control. Additionally, the Qin dynasty saw the introduction of a standardized system of weights and measures, which helped to unify the empire and support trade and commerce.

f. How were the people treated during the Qin Period?

Answer πŸ‘‰ The people were treated harshly during the Qin period. The legalist philosophy of the Qin dynasty emphasized strict laws and punishments, and the emperor was known for his cruelty and willingness to execute anyone who opposed him. The government also imposed heavy taxes and labor demands on the population, which contributed to widespread poverty and suffering among the people.

g. Why did Shi Huangdi stop educating ordinary people?

Answer πŸ‘‰ Shi Huangdi stopped educating ordinary people because he believed that educated people were more likely to challenge his rule. He feared that a well-educated population would be more likely to question his authority and demand greater rights and freedoms. By limiting education, he sought to maintain control over the population and prevent the emergence of dissent.

h. What did the Qin achieve by the legalism in practice?

Answer πŸ‘‰ The Qin achieved a great deal by implementing legalism in practice. The strict enforcement of laws and punishments helped to maintain order and control over the population, while the centralization of power allowed the government to effectively manage the empire. Additionally, the legalist philosophy emphasized the importance of efficiency and merit in government, which helped to promote economic growth and prosperity.

i. Why did Shi Huangdi never sleep in the same room for two consecutive nights?

Answer πŸ‘‰ Shi Huangdi never slept in the same room for two consecutive nights because he feared assassination. By constantly changing his sleeping arrangements, he sought to reduce the risk of an attack on his life and maintain his control over the empire.

j. What are the everlasting marks of the Qin Dynasty?

Answer πŸ‘‰ The everlasting marks of the Qin dynasty include the Great Wall of China, which was expanded and fortified during the Qin period to protect against invasions from the nomadic tribes of the northwest. Additionally, the Qin dynasty saw the introduction of a standardized system of weights and measures, which helped to unify the empire and support trade and commerce. The legacy of legalism also lived on, as the strict enforcement of laws and punishments became a hallmark of Chinese governance for centuries to come.



Critical thinking

a. The Great Wall and the Taj Mahal are the creation of autocratic rulers. Present your view for or against this statement.

Answer πŸ‘‰ The statement "The Great Wall and the Taj Mahal are the creation of the autocratic rulers" is partially true.

The Great Wall of China was initially built during the 7th century BC to protect China from invading forces. Over time, various dynasties and rulers added to the wall, including the Ming Dynasty and its ruler, Emperor Shi Huangdi, who ordered a massive expansion of the wall during his reign.

The Taj Mahal, on the other hand, was commissioned by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal, and is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Mughal architecture.

In both cases, the rulers used their power and resources to create these grand monuments. However, it is also important to note that these structures required the labor and skills of countless workers, architects, and artists, and were constructed over several years, often at great cost.

In conclusion, while it is accurate to say that the autocratic rulers played a major role in the creation of the Great Wall and the Taj Mahal, it is not entirely accurate to suggest that they did so alone.



b. How do you describe the pros and cons of feudalism?

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

Feudalism was a social, political, and economic system that dominated medieval Europe and Japan. The pros of feudalism include:

Security: Feudal lords provided protection to their tenants, giving them a sense of security in an otherwise chaotic and dangerous world.

Order: The feudal system provided a clear hierarchy, with each person having a defined role and place in society.

Economic stability: The feudal system allowed for the exchange of goods and services, creating a self-sufficient economy.

The cons of feudalism include:

Inequality: The feudal system was heavily unequal, with lords enjoying immense wealth and power while the majority of people lived in poverty.

Lack of mobility: There was little to no upward mobility in the feudal system, meaning that a person's social status was largely determined by their birth.

Rigid social hierarchy: The feudal system was very rigid, with strict laws and punishments for those who broke the rules. This could lead to oppression and exploitation of the lower classes by the ruling class.

Lack of progress: The feudal system often stifled innovation and progress, as lords were more concerned with maintaining their power and wealth than with advancing society.




Writing

a. Write an email to your friend living abroad stating the contributions of Prithvi Narayan Shah in the unification of Nepal.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

To: [email protected]

From: [email protected]

Subject: The Contributions of Prithvi Narayan Shah in the Unification of Nepal

Dear [Friend's Name],

I hope this email finds you well and enjoying life abroad. I wanted to share with you some important information about our homeland, Nepal, and the contributions of a great ruler named Prithvi Narayan Shah.

Prithvi Narayan Shah was the king of the Kingdom of Gorkha and the first ruler to unify all the small states of Nepal into one single kingdom. He is widely regarded as the father of modern Nepal and his contributions to the unification of the country are immeasurable.

Prithvi Narayan Shah believed in the expansion of his kingdom through military conquests and strategic alliances. He also implemented several administrative reforms that helped strengthen the central authority and unity of the country. He also introduced the Gurkha army, which became one of the most feared military forces in South Asia.

One of the most remarkable contributions of Prithvi Narayan Shah was his vision to bring all the different ethnic groups and communities under one rule. He recognized the importance of diversity in the country and worked towards creating a harmonious society.

Furthermore, he also introduced several religious, cultural, and social reforms that helped in the development of the country. He encouraged the spread of Hinduism and ensured that it became the dominant religion in Nepal.

In conclusion, Prithvi Narayan Shah's contributions to the unification of Nepal cannot be overstated. His vision, leadership, and determination have left an everlasting impact on our country and continue to inspire future generations.

I hope you find this information informative and interesting. Let me know if you have any questions or would like to know more about Nepal and its rich history.

Best regards,

[Your Name]


b. The table shows the major political movements in Nepal after the end of the Rana Regime. Write a paragraph of each event with their key contributions in the political landscape of Nepal.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

Establishment of Democracy 1951: After years of Rana rule, the democratic form of government was established in Nepal in 1951. The Rana regime was ended, and the country was opened to political, social and economic changes. The establishment of democracy marked the beginning of a new era in Nepalese politics, which allowed the Nepalese people to participate in the decision-making process of the country. This event was a key contribution to the political landscape of Nepal as it marked the end of the autocratic rule and the beginning of a more participatory form of government.

First General Election 1959: After the establishment of democracy, the first general election was held in Nepal in 1959. This event was significant as it allowed the Nepalese people to choose their leaders and participate in the election process. This election marked the first time that the Nepalese people had the opportunity to express their political preferences and to vote for the candidate of their choice.

Dismissal of Elected Government 1960: In 1960, the elected government in Nepal was dismissed, marking a setback in the democratization process of the country. This event was a major political change and had a significant impact on the political landscape of Nepal. The dismissal of the elected government raised questions about the stability of the democratic system in Nepal and led to a period of uncertainty and instability.

National Referendum 1980: In 1980, a national referendum was held in Nepal, which marked a significant change in the political landscape of the country. The referendum was aimed at creating a new political system, which would allow the Nepalese people to participate more actively in the decision-making process of the country. This event was a key contribution to the political landscape of Nepal as it allowed the Nepalese people to express their views on the political direction of the country.

People's Movement I 1990: In 1990, the first People's Movement took place in Nepal, marking a major change in the political landscape of the country. This movement was led by the Nepalese people and was aimed at restoring democracy and human rights in the country. The People's Movement I led to the reinstatement of the parliamentary system, and the country was once again opened to political, social, and economic changes.

People's Movement II 2006: In 2006, the second People's Movement took place in Nepal, marking another significant change in the political landscape of the country. This movement was aimed at ending the absolute monarchy in Nepal and establishing a federal democratic republic. The People's Movement II was successful, and the country adopted a new constitution in 2015, which marked the end of the monarchy and the establishment of a federal democratic republic in Nepal.



Grammar (Past Tense)

B. Complete the texts below using the correct past forms of the verbs from the bracket.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

a. The Maya established a very advanced civilisation in the jungles of the Yucatan. However, their culture disappeared (disappear) by the time Europeans first arrived (arrive) in the New World.

b. When I turned (turn) on the radio yesterday, I heard (hear) a song that was popular when I was (be) at the basic level of my study. It took (take) me back to some old memories.

c. I was looking for a job. I applied (apply) for a job last week. Fortunately, I got (get) it and now I am a job holder.





C. Choose the correct words from the list and complete the sentences with the correct verb form.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 

a. Newton saw an apple falling from the tree.

b. Ramesh Bikal wrote many popular stories.

c. My jacket is expensive. It cost me Rs 5000.

d. She got up early in the morning yesterday.

e. When I was small, my father taught me at home.

f. Why did you throw the cap away?




D. Put the verb into the correct form and complete the sentences.

Answer πŸ‘‰ 


a. I went to see the film, but I did not it. (not/enjoy)

b. I met Rojina in town in a few days ago. (meet)

c. It was very warm, so I took off my coat. (take off)

d. Though the bed was very comfortable, I did not sleep very well. (not/sleep)

e. I started new job last week. (start)

g. He was too busy in the office yesterday. (be)

h. Nita invited her to the party, but she didn’t come. (invite)


All Class 11 English Book Solution Link Unitwise

Section I : Language Development



Section II : Literature
Unit - 1 Short Stories


Unit - 2 Poems

Unit - 3 Essays

Unit - 4 One Act Plays




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